Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 926–939 | Cite as

Textural, Color, Hygroscopic, Lipid Oxidation, and Sensory Properties of Cookies Containing Free and Microencapsulated Chia Oil

  • Melina Maynara Carvalho de Almeida
  • Cristhian Rafael Lopes Francisco
  • Anielle de Oliveira
  • Sabrina Silva de Campos
  • Ana Paula Bilck
  • Renata Hernandez Barros Fuchs
  • Odinei Hess Gonçalves
  • Patrícia Velderrama
  • Aziza Kamal Genena
  • Fernanda Vitória Leimann
Original Paper


Encapsulation of chia oil might protect omega-3 and omega-6 from lipid oxidation when producing baked foods. However, the actual gain in stability given by chia oil must be determined. In this work, chia oil or chia oil-loaded microparticles were added to a cookie formulation in order to evaluate the ability of the microcapsules in protecting chia oil from deterioration. Texture, color, water sorption isotherms, and sensorial properties were also evaluated. A hot homogenization technique was used with carnauba wax as an encapsulant, and the freeze-dried microparticles were incorporated into the cookie dough. Principal component analyses were carried out to evaluate lipid oxidation using the medium infrared spectra of the lipid fraction extracted from the baked cookies. It was found that the microencapsulated chia oil was better protected from oxidative deterioration during baking compared to the sample containing non-encapsulated chia oil. Textural analysis showed that chia oil (free and microencapsulated) acted as a coating on the wheat flour particles. Control cookies (no chia oil loaded) presented a more hydrophilic character. In the case of oil-loaded samples (free and microencapsulated), the isosteric heat of sorption behavior indicated an initial swelling step of the food polymers, resulting in the exposure of sorption sites of higher binding energies not previously available, and that this is because of the wheat particles being covered by the chia oil and the solid lipid microparticles. Furthermore, food acceptability did not change when the oil-loaded microparticles were added to the cookie formulation.


Hot homogenization Conjugated dienes and trienes PCA Water sorption isotherms Isosteric heat of sorption, Salvia hispanica


Funding Information

The authors thank CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) for the financial support and José Gonçalves from CMCM (Centro Multiusuário de Caracterização de Materiais) and UTFPR-Campus Curitiba for the SEM analysis.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melina Maynara Carvalho de Almeida
    • 1
  • Cristhian Rafael Lopes Francisco
    • 2
  • Anielle de Oliveira
    • 2
  • Sabrina Silva de Campos
    • 2
  • Ana Paula Bilck
    • 3
  • Renata Hernandez Barros Fuchs
    • 2
  • Odinei Hess Gonçalves
    • 1
  • Patrícia Velderrama
    • 1
  • Aziza Kamal Genena
    • 1
  • Fernanda Vitória Leimann
    • 1
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia de Alimentos (PPGTA)Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Campo Mourão (UTFPR-CM)Campo MourãoBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento Acadêmico de Alimentos (DALIM)Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Campo Mourão (UTFPR-CM)Campo MourãoBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Centro de Ciências AgráriasUniversidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL)LondrinaBrazil

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