Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 991–1001 | Cite as

Synergistic Bathochromic and Hyperchromic Shifts of Anthocyanin Spectra Observed Following Complexation with Iron Salts and Chondroitin Sulfate

  • Giovana B. Celli
  • Michael J. Selig
  • Chen Tan
  • Alireza Abbaspourrad
Original Paper


Grape anthocyanins are not traditionally used on complexation studies, as the main compounds lack a catechol group. In this study, concomitant metal complexation (Fe2+ and/or Fe3+) and co-pigmentation with chondroitin sulfate (CHS) were shown to synergistically affect the color spectra of grape anthocyanins at varying pHs. In general, the addition of iron salts resulted in small reductions in maximum absorbance at pH 3 and a bathochromic shift at pH 4 and 5. On the other hand, CHS resulted in hypochromic shifts at pH 3 and 4. When combined, these compounds broadened the peak at higher wavelengths associated with blue color, and resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05) area under the curve at these wavelengths even at pH 3. Interestingly, this synergistic effect seemed to work only at low pH. All observed effects were achieved using low concentrations of metals and CHS. The results should interest those aiming to achieve anthocyanin color modulation through metal complexation at modest loadings.


Anthocyanin Co-pigmentation Chondroitin sulfate Iron Spectra analysis 



This work has been fully supported by resources within the Department of Food Science at Cornell University.

Supplementary material

11947_2018_2055_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (198 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 UV-Vis spectra (350–800 nm) of anthocyanin-rich grape powder (control) and low or high concentration of metal salts (exhibits A and B, respectively) or CHS (exhibits C and D, respectively) in 0.5 M sodium acetate buffered solutions (pH 3 to 5, t = 6 h) (JPEG 197 kb)
11947_2018_2055_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (136 kb)
(JPEG 135 kb)
11947_2018_2055_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (131 kb)
(JPEG 130 kb)
11947_2018_2055_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (319 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2 Anthocyanin-metal-CHS spectra in comparison to control and metal alone at the respective pH values (arrows indicate peak broadening). Insets represent difference absorption spectra (∆A) (in color) (JPEG 318 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovana B. Celli
    • 1
  • Michael J. Selig
    • 1
  • Chen Tan
    • 1
  • Alireza Abbaspourrad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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