Phytosterols are used to lower the blood cholesterol. β-Sitosterol is one of the most important phytosterols with very poor water solubility and bioaccessibility. The main goal of the current research was to investigate the effects of different emulsification variables (i.e. shear, time, pressure and cycle) on the physicochemical properties, release behaviour and encapsulation efficiency of β-sitosterol in water-in-oil-in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Initially, 19 β-sitosterol emulsions were prepared under different experimental conditions (shear 3000 and 6000 rpm; time 2.5 and 5 min; pressure 100, 200 and 300 bar; cycle 1–3). In this study, the β-sitosterol emulsion prepared at 6000 rpm, 5 min, 300 bar and 3 cycles had the smallest average droplet size (139 nm) among all prepared samples. The interaction between shear and time showed the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the polydispersity index (PDI) and turbidity of the β-sitosterol emulsion. Increasing homogenization pressure and cycle led to improving emulsion stability and encapsulation efficiency. The β-sitosterol emulsion homogenised at 100 bar for 1 cycle had the highest encapsulation efficiency (81.7%) among all samples. The optimization study showed that the emulsification at 300 bar for 3 cycles resulted in the most desirable β-sitosterol emulsion.
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We appreciate the financial support by University Putra Malaysia to support this study through Putra grant (GP-IPT/2013/94191600/GRANT PUTRA).
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Momeny, E., Mirhosseini, H. & Sarker, M.I. Effect of Medium-High Energy Emulsification Condition on Physicochemical Properties of β-Sitosterol Multiple Emulsion. Food Bioprocess Technol 10, 1642–1654 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-017-1932-1
- Encapsulation efficiency
- Release behaviour
- Emulsion stability