Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 1337–1353 | Cite as

Characterizing Red Radish Pigment Off-Odor and Aroma-Active Compounds by Sensory Evaluation, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry and Partial Least Square Regression

  • Wentian Chen
  • Eric Karangwa
  • Jingyang Yu
  • Shuqin Xia
  • Biao Feng
  • Xiaoming Zhang
  • Chensheng Jia
Original Paper


Aroma-active compounds of red radish pigment extracts (water extract, phosphoric acidified water extracts (PAW), 10 min water or phosphoric acidified water preheated extracts (HW or HPAW), Chongqing, and Yunan extracts) were identified and characterized via sensory evaluation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Three sensory attributes, namely radish odor (desirable) and radish off-odor and sulfur-like odor (undesirable), were selected to characterize the red radish pigment extracts. The correlation between the aroma-active compounds (GC-MS) and sensory attributes was studied using partial least square regression (PLSR). The sensory evaluation results revealed that Chongqing (9.30 and 8.80), water (9.00 and 9.10), Yunan (7.80 and 8.00), and HW (6.90 and 7.20) extracts showed higher radish off-odor and sulfur-like odor scores, while PAW-2.5 (7.70) and HPAW-2.5 (7.60) extracts showed higher radish odor scores. Sulfur-containing compounds, allyl isothiocyanate, 1-butyl isothiocyanate, acetonitrile, oxygen-containing compounds, terpenes, and naphthalene were positively and significantly correlated with radish off-odor and sulfur-like odor but negatively and significantly correlated to radish odor. 3-(Methylthio)propyl isothiocyanate and pyridine were positively and significantly correlated to radish odor. Additionally, 3-buten-1-yl isothiocyanate and 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate showed positive but not significant impact on radish odor. Based on their higher volatile concentration, the aroma-active compounds of the four extracts were evaluated using GC-MS/O. Thirty-three aroma-active compounds with different odor intensities were identified to be the major odorant compounds for red radish pigment extracts by panelists. Conclusively, the red radish pigment extraction conditions play a great role in its sensory characteristics.


Red radish pigments Sensory evaluation GC-MS/O GC-MS PLSR 



The research was supported in part by the National Program of China (2013AA102204) and Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (2016 M590143) and program of “Collaborative innovation center of food safety and quality control in Jiangsu Province.” It was also funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wentian Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eric Karangwa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jingyang Yu
    • 1
  • Shuqin Xia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Biao Feng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaoming Zhang
    • 1
  • Chensheng Jia
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  2. 2.Research and Development, AAFUD Industry (Zhuhai) Co. LtdZhuhaiPeople’s Republic of China

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