Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 1281–1296 | Cite as

Waxy Wheat Flour as a Freeze-Thaw Stable Ingredient Through Rheological Studies

  • Ryan J. Kowalski
  • Alexander Meldrum
  • Siyuan Wang
  • Helen Joyner (Melito)
  • Girish M. Ganjyal
Original Paper


A large variety of foods including soups, sauces, and other items that may experience freezing use specialty ingredients to prevent negative effects of freezing. While multiple modified starches derived from maize are available to do this, unmodified flours that may be able to carry a “natural” label are not used widely. To begin to analyze whether other alternative solutions are possible in unutilized flours, waxy wheat flour was subjected to freeze-thaw characterization through rheology to provide insight to textural changes that may occur. In order to determine freeze-thaw-induced changes, gelatinized solutions of waxy and regular wheat flours were subjected to shear rate sweeps, oscillatory rheological tests, and large amplitude oscillatory shear testing before and after freeze-thaw cycles. Minimal changes in rheological behaviors were observed in waxy wheat samples compared to regular wheat samples. Waxy wheat flour was also analyzed through differential scanning calorimetry both before and after being subjected to ten freeze-thaw cycles. Syneresis effects were also determined after each freeze-thaw cycle. Waxy wheat exhibited <5% water loss while regular wheat showed 25–40% water loss. Differential scanning calorimetry after freeze-thaw cycles were found to exhibit negligible retrogradation enthalpy values in waxy wheat samples as compared to 1.3–1.8 J/g in regular wheat samples. Results suggested that waxy wheat can serve as a novel and natural food ingredient for freeze-thaw stabilization in foods such as soups, dressings, and frozen meals.


Waxy wheat Rheology Freeze-thaw Stabilizing agent 



This project was funded by the new faculty seed grant through Washington State University and University of Idaho.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryan J. Kowalski
    • 1
  • Alexander Meldrum
    • 2
  • Siyuan Wang
    • 1
  • Helen Joyner (Melito)
    • 2
  • Girish M. Ganjyal
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Food ScienceWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.School of Food ScienceUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA

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