Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 1297–1309 | Cite as

Improvement of Aroma and Shelf-Life of Non-alcoholic Beverages Through Cyclodextrins-Limonene Inclusion Complexes

  • Cátia Saldanha do Carmo
  • Rita Pais
  • Ana L. Simplício
  • Marília Mateus
  • Catarina M.M. Duarte
Original Paper


Limonene is a monoterpene flavor compound found in several beverages. However, it easily degrades by oxidation reactions at acidic environment contributing to an undesirable off-flavor. Encapsulation technologies can protect compounds from degradation. This work focuses on the effect of using complexes of limonene with α-, β-, and γ- and HP-β-cyclodextrins in non-alcoholic beverages to improve flavor and shelf-life stability due to the chemical structure of cyclodextrins. Spray-drying technology was applied to prepare different cyclodextrin/limonene forms, from which the most promising was selected and further applied in simulated lemon juice beverages. Different drying process conditions were tested, namely feed temperature (120, 160, and 180 °C) and setting of prior incubation (temperature, room and 50 °C; time, 0.17 and 24 h). An inlet temperature of 160 °C favored the encapsulation of limonene into resulting nano/microparticles. Moreover, incubation for 24 h enhanced limonene retention for all complexes, especially for β-cyclodextrin/limonene complexes, which achieved 66% of encapsulation efficiency and a 6.25 w/w of limonene load. The β-cyclodextrin/limonene particles which enabled higher load (160 °C, 24 h) presented particle size ranging between 1 and 3 μm and were chosen to undergo an accelerated aging process in a lemon juice beverage model. This study revealed that the limonene content decreased over time for model and supplemented juice, but decreased less when β-cyclodextrin/limonene particles were added. After 10 days, which mimics 9 months of storage, 40% of complexed limonene remained in the model beverage.


α-Cyclodextrin β-Cyclodextrin γ-Cyclodextrin HP-β-cyclodextrin Limonene Spray-drying 



This study was financially supported by ITQB/IBET, IST/iBB and SUMOL+COMPAL. Furthermore, this work acknowledges Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) through PEst-OE/EQB/LA0004/2011, the financial support received from FCT through the doctoral (SFRH/BDE/51856/2012) fellowship and R&D units iNOVA4Health-UID/Multi/04462/2013 and GreenIT-UID/Multi/04551/2013, programs financially supported by FCT/Ministério da Educação e Ciência, through national funds and co-funded by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. Also acknowledged is the funding received from FCT (UID/BIO/04565/2013) and from Programa Operacional Regional de Lisboa 2020 (Project N.007317) in the framework of iBB activities.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cátia Saldanha do Carmo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rita Pais
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ana L. Simplício
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marília Mateus
    • 3
  • Catarina M.M. Duarte
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (iBET)OeirasPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António XavierUniversidade Nova de LisboaOeirasPortugal
  3. 3.Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences (iBB) and Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal

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