Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 89–102 | Cite as

Effects of Fish Gelatin and Tea Polyphenol Coating on the Spoilage and Degradation of Myofibril in Fish Fillet During Cold Storage

  • Xiao Feng
  • Voon Kunn Ng
  • Marta Mikš-Krajnik
  • Hongshun Yang
Original Paper


Fish fillet is easily spoiled during storage. Antimicrobial edible coating of gelatin extracted from fish skins and bones and tea polyphenol (TP) was developed to inhibit the spoilage of fish fillet during cold storage. For coating containing 0.4 % TP and 1.2 % gelatin, the pH only slightly increased from 6.17 at day 0 to 6.32 at day 17 of cold storage, while the pH of control coating increased to 6.87 at day 17. Atomic force spectrometry was used to analyse the nanostructure of myofibril, which is the major component of fish muscle. The results showed that the length of myofibril from 0.4 % TP and 1.2 % gelatin group was greater than 15 μm, while the diameter and height were 3.38 and 0.59 μm, respectively, which exhibited the most intact nanostructure after 17 days of cold storage. Meanwhile, matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionisation–time-of-flight mass spectrometry result showed that TP delayed the degradation of myosin light chain 3 and troponin T in myofibril. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) also showed that 0.4 % TP and 1.2 % gelatin coating group had minimal production of spoilage markers, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methyl propanoic acid and dimethyl sulfide. The microbial analysis showed that the aerobic mesophilic/psychrotrophic count, yeasts and moulds of 0.4 % TP and 1.2 % gelatin group were significantly lower than the control group. Therefore, 0.4 % TP and 1.2 % gelatin coating showed the best antimicrobial effect and can be used to maintain the nanostructure of fish fillet and prevent the spoilage during cold storage.


Gelatin coating Tea polyphenol Matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionisation–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) Atomic force spectrometry (AFM) Headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS/SPME/GC/MS) 



We acknowledge the financial support by Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 (R-143-000-583-112) and the start-up grant (R-143-000-561-133) by the National University of Singapore. Projects 31371851, 31071617, 31471605 and 31200801 supported by NSFC, Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20141220) and Applied Basic Research Project (Agricultural) Suzhou Science and Technology Planning Programme (SYN201522) also contributed to this research.


  1. Ayala, M.D., Santaella, M., Martínez, C., Periago, M.J., Blanco, A., Vázquez, J.M., & Albors, O.L. (2011). Muscle tissue structure and flesh texture in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., fillets preserved by refrigeration and by vacuum packaging. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44, 1098–1106.Google Scholar
  2. Broekaert, K., Heyndrickx, M., Herman, L., Devlieghere, F., & Vlaemynck, G. (2011). Seafood quality analysis: molecular identification of dominant microbiota after ice storage on several general growth media. Food Microbiology, 28, 1162–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Capitani, M.I., Matus-Basto, A., Ruiz-Ruiz, J.C., Santiago-García, J.L., Betancur-Ancona, D.A., Nolasco, S.M., Tomás, M.C., & Segura-Campos, M.R. (2016). Characterization of biodegradable films based on Salvia hispanica L. protein and mucilage. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1–11.Google Scholar
  4. Chen, T., & Levin, R. (1974). Taxonomic significance of phenethyl alcohol production by Achromobacter isolates from fishery sources. Applied Microbiology, 28, 681–687.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, B.J., Zhou, Y.J., Wei, X.Y., Xie, H.J., Hider, R.C., & Zhou, T. (2016). Edible antimicrobial coating incorporating a polymeric iron chelator and its application in the preservation of surimi product. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1–9.Google Scholar
  6. Cheng, J.-H., Sun, D.-W., Han, Z., & Zeng, X.-A. (2014). Texture and structure measurements and analyses for evaluation of fish and fillet freshness quality: a review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 13, 52–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheret, R., Delbarreladrat, C., Lamballerieanton, M., & Verrezbagnis, V. (2007). Calpain and cathepsin activities in post mortem fish and meat muscles. Food Chemistry, 101, 1474–1479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chong, J. X., Lai, S., & Yang, H. (2015). Chitosan combined with calcium chloride impacts fresh-cut honeydew melon by stabilising nanostructures of sodium-carbonate-soluble pectin. Food Control, 53, 195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Delbarre-Ladrat, C., Verrez-Bagnis, V., Noël, J., & Fleurence, J. (2004). Relative contribution of calpain and cathepsins to protein degradation in muscle of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Food Chemistry, 88, 389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dhayakaran, R. P. A., Neethirajan, S., Xue, J., & Shi, J. (2015). Characterization of antimicrobial efficacy of soy isoflavones against pathogenic biofilms. LWT--Food Science and Technology, 63, 859–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dong, L., Zhu, J., Li, X., & Li, J. (2013). Effect of tea polyphenols on the physical and chemical characteristics of dried-seasoned squid (Dosidicus gigas) during storage. Food Control, 31, 586–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fan, H., Luo, Y., Yin, X., Bao, Y., & Feng, L. (2014). Biogenic amine and quality changes in lightly salt- and sugar-salted black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 4 °C. Food Chemistry, 159, 20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feng, X., Lai, S., & Yang, H. (2014). Sustainable seafood processing: utilisation of fish gelatin. Austin Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 2, 1006.Google Scholar
  14. Feng, X., Bansal, N., & Yang, H. (2016). Fish gelatin combined with chitosan coating inhibits myofibril degradation of golden pomfret (Trachinotus blochii) fillet during cold storage. Food Chemistry, 200, 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gómez-Guillén, M. C., Pérez-Mateos, M., Gómez-Estaca, J., López-Caballero, E., Giménez, B., & Montero, P. (2009). Fish gelatin: a renewable material for developing active biodegradable films. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 20, 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hsieh, R. J., & Kinsella, J. E. (1989). Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids: mechanisms, products, and inhibition with emphasis on fish. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 33, 233–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Iglesias, J., Medina, I., Bianchi, F., Careri, M., Mangia, A., & Musci, M. (2009). Study of the volatile compounds useful for the characterisation of fresh and frozen-thawed cultured gilthead sea bream fish by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 115, 1473–1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Iwasaki, T., Hasegawa, Y., Yamamoto, K., & Nakamura, K. (2009). The relationship between the changes in local stiffness of chicken myofibril and the tenderness of muscle during postmortem aging. In Gels: structures, properties, and functions, 205–210.Google Scholar
  19. Leisner, J. J., & Gram, L. (2000). Spoilage of fish. In Encyclopedia of food microbiology. Academic Press, Incorporated.Google Scholar
  20. Li, Y., Liu, S., Cline, D., Chen, S., Wang, Y., & Bell, L. N. (2013). Chemical treatments for reducing the yellow discoloration of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Journal of Food Science, 78, S1609–S1613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahto, R., Ghosh, S., Das, M. K., & Das, M. (2015). Effect of gamma irradiation and frozen storage on the quality of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). LWT--Food Science and Technology, 61, 573–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martone, C. B., Busconi, L., Folco, E. J., Trucco, R. E., & Sanchez, J. J. (1986). A simplified myosin preparation from marine fish species. Journal of Food Science, 51, 1554–1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohtar, N. F., Perera, C. O., & Hemar, Y. (2014). Chemical modification of New Zealand hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) skin gelatin and its properties. Food Chemistry, 155, 64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ocaño-Higuera, V. M., Marquez-Ríos, E., Canizales-Dávila, M., Castillo-Yáñez, F. J., Pacheco-Aguilar, R., Lugo-Sánchez, M. E., García-Orozco, K. D., & Graciano-Verdugo, A. Z. (2009). Postmortem changes in cazon fish muscle stored on ice. Food Chemistry, 116, 933–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ogneva, I. V., Lebedev, D. V., & Shenkman, B. S. (2010). Transversal stiffness and Young’s modulus of single fibers from rat soleus muscle probed by atomic force microscopy. Biophysical Journal, 98, 418–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pazos, M., Maestre, R., Gallardo, J. M., & Medina, I. (2013). Proteomic evaluation of myofibrillar carbonylation in chilled fish mince and its inhibition by catechin. Food Chemistry, 136, 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pothakos, V., Samapundo, S., & Devlieghere, F. (2012). Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life. Food Microbiology, 32, 437–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Qian, Y. F., Xie, J., Yang, S. P., Huang, S., Wu, W. H., & Li, L. (2015). Inhibitory effect of a quercetin-based soaking formulation and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) on muscle degradation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). LWT--Food Science and Technology, 63, 1339–1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sallam, K. I. (2007). Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon. Food Control, 18, 566–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shiroodi, S.G., Nesaei, S., Ovissipour, M., Al-Qadiri, H.M., Rasco, B., & Sablani, S. (2016). Biodegradable polymeric films incorporated with nisin: characterization and efficiency against Listeria monocytogenes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1–12.Google Scholar
  31. Shokri, S., Ehsani, A., & Jasour, M. S. (2015). Efficacy of lactoperoxidase system-whey protein coating on shelf-life extension of rainbow trout fillets during cold storage (4°C). Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8, 54–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Skandamis, P., Tsigarida, E., & Nychas, G. J. (2000). Ecophysiological attributes of Salmonella typhimurium in liquid culture and within a gelatin gel with or without the addition of oregano essential oil. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 16, 31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Soltanizadeh, N., & Kadivar, M. (2014). Nanomechanical characteristics of meat and its constituents postmortem: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54, 1117–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Souza, M. P., Vaz, A. F., Cerqueira, M. A., Texeira, J. A., Vicente, A. A., & Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. G. (2015). Effect of an edible nanomultilayer coating by electrostatic self-assembly on the shelf life of fresh-cut mangoes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8, 647–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sow, L. C., & Yang, H. (2015). Effects of salt and sugar addition on the physicochemical properties and nanostructure of fish gelatin. Food Hydrocolloids, 45, 72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tongnuanchan, P., Benjakul, S., Prodpran, T., Pisuchpen, S., & Osako, K. (2016). Mechanical, thermal and heat sealing properties of fish skin gelatin film containing palm oil and basil essential oil with different surfactants. Food Hydrocolloids, 56, 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wakayama, J., Yoshikawa, Y., Yasuike, T., & Yamada, T. (2000). Atomic force microscopic evidence for Z-band as a rigid disc fixing the sarcomere structure of skeletal muscle. Cell Structure and Function, 25, 361–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu, C., Li, Y., Wang, L., Hu, Y., Chen, J., Liu, D., & Ye, X. (2016). Efficacy of chitosan-gallic acid coating on shelf life extension of refrigerated pacific mackerel fillets. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1–11.Google Scholar
  39. Yang, H., Wang, Y., Regenstein, J. M., & Rouse, D. B. (2007). Nanostructural characterization of catfish skin gelatin using atomic force microscopy. Journal of Food Science, 72, C430–C440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yi, S., Li, J., Zhu, J., Lin, Y., Fu, L., Chen, W., & Li, X. (2011). Effect of tea polyphenols on microbiological and biochemical quality of Collichthys fish ball. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91, 1591–1597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yoshikawa, Y., Yasuike, T., Yagi, A., & Yamada, T. (1999). Transverse elasticity of myofibrils of rabbit skeletal muscle studied by atomic force microscopy. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 256, 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhao, J., Lv, W., Wang, J., Li, J., Liu, X., & Zhu, J. (2013). Effects of tea polyphenols on the post-mortem integrity of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) fillet proteins. Food Chemistry, 141, 2666–2674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Science and Technology Programme, Department of ChemistryNational University of SingaporeSingaporeRepublic of Singapore
  2. 2.National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research InstituteSuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Industrial and Food Microbiology, Faculty of Food ScienceUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

Personalised recommendations