The physical, mechanical, and structural changes in French fries at different frying temperatures (170, 180, and 190 °C) during par and finish frying were investigated. The experimental frying process includes blanching, par frying, freezing, and finish frying at the point of consumption. Par frying temperature had a greater effect on moisture reduction than on processing time with the greatest moisture loss at 180 °C after 160 s. At 180 °C, fries had the highest total oil uptake (29.56 % wb). Frying caused a significant change in color with the greatest effect at 190 °C. Micro-CT scan images showed structural changes in French fries over the course of the frying process. Frying time increased the volume of the pores relative to the size of the crust, and this was positively correlated with the hardness and shear cutting force. Overall, within the range of frying conditions studied, the higher temperature (190 °C) resulted in the lowest amount of oil uptake and the crispiest texture.
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We would like to thank M/s. Micro Photonics, Inc. for their micro-CT scanning support and the image analysis. Special thanks are due to Lamb Weston (ConAgra Foods, Inc.) for supplying with the potatoes and oil for all the frying experiments. We are thankful to Drs. Armando McDonald, Carl Morrow, Helen Joyner, Mr. Jim Nelson, and Ms. Binying Ye of the University of Idaho for their help in the use of their laboratories. In addition, thanks are given to Mr. Frank Younce at the School of Food Science, Washington State University, for his support with the texture analysis and to Mr. Bhim Thapa for his significant assistance with the frying experiments and sample analysis.
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Millin, T.M., Medina-Meza, I.G., Walters, B.C. et al. Frying Oil Temperature: Impact on Physical and Structural Properties of French Fries During the Par and Finish Frying Processes. Food Bioprocess Technol 9, 2080–2091 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-016-1790-2