Skip to main content

Automated Systems Based on Machine Vision for Inspecting Citrus Fruits from the Field to Postharvest—a Review

Abstract

Computer vision systems are becoming a scientific but also a commercial tool for food quality assessment. In the field, these systems can be used to predict yield, as well as for robotic harvesting or the early detection of potentially dangerous diseases. In postharvest handling, it is mostly used for the automated inspection of the external quality of the fruits and for sorting them into commercial categories at very high speed. More recently, the use of hyperspectral imaging is allowing the detection of not only defects in the skin of the fruits but also their association to certain diseases of particular importance. In the research works that use this technology, wavelengths that play a significant role in detecting some of these dangerous diseases are found, leading to the development of multispectral imaging systems that can be used in industry. This article reviews recent works that use colour and non-standard computer vision systems for the automated inspection of citrus. It explains the different technologies available to acquire the images and their use for the non-destructive inspection of internal and external features of these fruits. Particular attention is paid to inspection for the early detection of some dangerous diseases like citrus canker, black spot, decay or citrus Huanglongbing.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Adebayo, S. E., Hashim, N., Abdan, K., & Hanafi, M. (2016). Application and potential of backscattering imaging techniques in agricultural and food processing—a review. Journal of Food Engineering, 169, 155–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Aleixos, N., Blasco, J., Navarrón, F., & Moltó, E. (2002). Multispectral inspection of citrus in real time using machine vision and digital signal processors. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 33(2), 121–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Annamalai, P., & Lee, W. S. (2003). Citrus yield mapping system using machine vision. ASAE Paper No. 031002. St. Joseph: ASAE.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Annamalai, P., & Lee, W. S. (2004). Identification of green citrus fruits using spectral characteristics. ASAE Paper No. FL04–1001. St. Joseph: ASAE.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Balasundaram, D., Burks, T. F., Bulanon, D. M., Schubert, T., & Lee, W. S. (2009). Spectral reflectance characteristics of citrus canker and other peel conditions of grapefruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 51, 220–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bansal, R., Lee, W. S., & Satish, S. (2013). Green citrus detection using fast Fourier transform (FFT) leakage. Precision Agriculture, 14(1), 59–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Barreiro, P., Zheng, C., Sun, D.-W., Hernández-Sánchez, N., Pérez-Sánchez, J. M., & Ruiz-Cabello, J. (2008). Non-destructive seed detection in mandarins: comparison of automatic threshold methods in FLASH and COMSPIRA MRIs. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 47, 189–198.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Basavaprasad, B., & Ravi, M. (2014). A comparative study on classification of image segmentation methods with a focus on graph based techniques. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3, 310–315.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Birth, G. S. (1976). How light interacts with foods. In: Gafney J.Jr.(Ed.), Quality detection in foods (pp. 6–11). St. Joseph: ASAE.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Blanc, P.G.R., Blasco, J., Moltó, E., Gómez-Sanchis, J., & Cubero, S. (2010) System for the automatic selective separation of rotten citrus fruits. Patent number EP2133157 A1 CN101678405A, EP2133157A4, EP2133157B1, US20100121484

  11. Blasco, J., Aleixos, N., & Moltó, E. (2007a). Computer vision detection of peel defects in citrus by means of a region oriented segmentation algorithm. Journal of Food Engineering, 81(3), 535–543.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Blasco, J., Aleixos, N., Gómez, J., & Moltó, E. (2007b). Citrus sorting by identification of the most common defects using multispectral computer vision. Journal of Food Engineering, 83(3), 384–393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Blasco, J., Aleixos, N., Gómez-Sanchis, J., & Moltó, E. (2009). Recognition and classification of external skin damages in citrus fruits using multispectral data and morphological features. Biosystems Engineering, 103(2), 137–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Blasco, J., Cubero, S., & Moltó, E. (2016). Quality evaluation of citrus fruits. In D.-W. Sun (Ed.), Computer vision technology for food quality evaluation (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bulanon, D. M., Burks, T. F., & Alchanatis, V. (2009). Image fusion of visible and thermal images for fruit detection. Biosystems Engineering, 103, 12–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bulanon, D.M., Burks, T.F., Kim, D.G., & Ritenour, M.A. (2013). Citrus black spot detection using hyperspectral image analysis. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 15,(3)171.

  17. Burks, T. F., Villegas, F., Hannan, M. W., & Flood, S. (2003). Engineering and horticultural aspects of robotic fruit harvesting: opportunities and constraints. HortTechnology, 15(1), 79–87.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Campbell, B. L., Nelson, R. G., Ebel, R. C., Dozier, W. A., Adrian, J. L., & Hockema, B. R. (2004). Fruit quality characteristics that affect consumer preferences for Satsuma mandarins. Hortscience, 39(7), 1664–1669.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Chinchuluun, R., Lee, W. S., & Ehsani, R. (2009). Machine vision system for determining citrus count and size on a canopy shake and catch harvester. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 25(4), 451–458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Choi, D., Lee, W. S., Ehsani, R., & Roka, F. M. (2015). A machine vision system for quantification of citrus fruit dropped on the ground under the canopy. Transactions of the ASABE, 58(4), 933–946.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Codex Alimentarius, (2011). Codex standard for oranges. Available at: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/download/standards/10372/CXS_245e.pdf. Accessed March 2016

  22. Cubero, S., Aleixos, N., Albert, A., Torregrosa, A., Ortiz, C., García-Navarrete, O., & Blasco, J. (2014a). Optimised computer vision system for automatic pre-grading of citrus fruit in the field using a mobile platform. Precision Agriculture, 15(1), 80–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Cubero, S., Aleixos, N., Moltó, E., Gómez-Sanchis, J., & Blasco, J. (2011). Advances in machine vision applications for automatic inspection and quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(4), 487–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Cubero, S., Diago, M. P., Blasco, J., Tardáguila, J., Millán, B., & Aleixos, N. (2014b). A new method for pedicel/peduncle detection and size assessment of grapevine berries and other fruits by image analysis. Biosystems Engineering, 117, 62–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Dong, C.-W., Ye, Y., Zhang, J.-Q., Zhu, H.-K., & Liu, F. (2014). Detection of thrips defect on green-peel citrus using hyperspectral imaging technology combining PCA and B-Spline lighting correction method. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13(10), 2229–2235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. FAOSTAT (2012). URL: http://faostat.fao.org http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/est/COMM_MARKETS_MONITORING/Citrus/Documents/CITRUS_BULLETIN_2012.pdf. Accessed March 2016.

  27. Farrell, T. J., Patterson, M. S., & Wilson, B. (1992). A diffusion-theory model of spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical-properties in vivo. Medical Physics, 19, 879–888.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Flood, S. J., Burks, T. F., & Teixeira, A. A. (2006). Physical properties of oranges in response to applied gripping forces for robotic harvesting. Transactions of ASAE, 49(2), 341–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Gaffney, J. J. (1973). Reflectance properties of citrus fruit. Transactions of ASAE, 16(2), 310–314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Garcia-Ruiz, F., Sankaran, S., Maja, J. M., Lee, W. S., Rasmussen, J., & Ehsani, R. (2013). Comparison of two aerial imaging platforms for identification of Huanglongbing infected citrus trees. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 91, 106–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Gómez, J., Blasco, J., Moltó, E., & Camps-Valls, G. (2007). Hyperspectral detection of citrus damage with a Mahalanobis kernel classifier. Electronics Letters, 43(20), 1082–1084.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Gómez-Sanchis, J., Blasco, J., Soria-Olivas, E., Lorente, D., Escandell-Montero, P., Martínez-Martínez, J. M., Martínez-Sober, M., & Aleixos, N. (2013). Hyperspectral LCTF-based system for classification of decay in mandarins caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum using the most relevant bands and non-linear classifiers. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 82, 76–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Gómez-Sanchis, J., Gómez-Chova, L., Aleixos, N., Camps-Valls, G., Montesinos-Herrero, C., Moltó, E., & Blasco, J. (2008). Hyperspectral system for early detection of rottenness caused by Penicillium digitatum in mandarins. Journal of Food Engineering, 89(1), 80–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Gómez-Sanchis, J., Lorente, D., Soria-Olivas, E., Aleixos, N., Cubero, S., & Blasco, J. (2014). Development of a hyperspectral computer vision system based on two liquid crystal tuneable filters for fruit inspection. Application to detect citrus fruits decay. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7, 1047–1056.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Gómez-Sanchis, J., Martín-Guerrero, J. D., Soria-Olivas, E., Martínez-Sober, M., Magdalena-Benedito, R., & Blasco, J. (2012). Detecting rottenness caused by Penicillium in citrus fruits using machine learning techniques. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(1), 780–785.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Gong, A., Yu, J., He, Y., & Qiu, Z. (2013). Citrus yield estimation based on images processed by an android mobile phone. Biosystems Engineering, 115, 162–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Gottwald, T. R., Graham, J. H., & Schubert, T. S. (2002). Citrus canker: the pathogen and its impact. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2002-0812-01-RV.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Hannan, M., Burks, T. F., & Bulanon, D.M. (2009). A machine vision algorithm for orange fruit detection. The CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript 1281. Vol XI. December 2009.

  39. Harrell, R. C., Adsit, P. D., & Slaughter, D. C. (1985). Real-time vision-servoing of a robotic tree-fruit harvester. ASAE Paper No (pp. 85–3550). St. Joseph: ASAE.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Hernández-Sánchez, N., Barreiro, P., & Ruiz-Cabello, J. (2006). On-line identification of seeds in mandarins with magnetic resonance imaging. Biosystems Engineering, 95, 529–536.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Holmes, G. J., & Eckert, J. W. (1999). Sensitivity of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum to postharvest citrus fungicides in California. Phytopathology, 89(9), 716–721.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Iqbal, S. M., Gopal, A., Sankaranarayanan, P. E., & Nair, A. B. (2016). Classification of selected citrus fruits based on color using machine vision system. International Journal of Food Properties, 19, 272–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Jackson, J. E. (1991). A user’s guide to principal components. New York: Wiley.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  44. Jafari, A., Fazayeli, A., & Zarezadeh, M. R. (2014). Estimation of orange skin thickness based on visual texture coarseness. Biosystems Engineering, 117, 73–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Jiménez-Cuesta, M. J., Cuquerella, J., & Martínez-Jávega, J. M. (1981). Determination of a color index for citrus fruit degreening. In Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 2, 750–753.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Kim, D. G., Burks, T. F., Qin, J., & Bulanon, D. M. (2009). Classification of grapefruit peel diseases using color texture feature analysis. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 2, 41–50.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Kim, D. G., Burks, T. F., Ritenour, M. A., & Qin, J. (2014). Citrus black spot detection using hyperspectral imaging. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 7, 20–27.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Kohno, Y., Kondo, N., Iida, M., Kurita, M., Shiigi, T., Ogawa, Y., Kaichi, T., & Okamoto, S. (2011). Development of a mobile grading machine for citrus fruit. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 4, 7–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Kondo, N., Kuramoto, M., Shimizu, H., Ogawa, Y., Kurita, M., Nishizu, T., Chong, V. K., & Yamamoto, K. (2009). Identification of fluorescent substance in mandarin orange skin for machine vision system to detect rotten citrus fruits. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 2, 54–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Kurita, M., Kondo, N., Shimizu, H., Ling, P. P., Falzea, P. D., Shiigi, T., Ninomiya, K., Nishizu, T., & Yamamoto, K. (2009). A double image acquisition system with visible and UV LEDs for citrus fruit. Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, 21, 533–540.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Kurtulmus, F., Lee, W. S., & Vardar, A. (2011). Green citrus detection using eigenfruit, color and circular Gabor texture features under natural outdoor conditions. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 78(2), 140–149.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Ladaniya, M. S. (2010). Citrus fruit: biology, technology and evaluation. San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Li, H., Lee, W. S., & Wang, K. (2016). Immature green citrus fruit detection and counting based on fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC) using natural outdoor colour images. Precision Agriculture. doi:10.1007/s11119-016-9443-z.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Li, H., Lee, W. S., Wang, K., Ehsani, R., & Yang, C. (2014). Extended spectral angle mapping (ESAM) for citrus greening disease detection using airborne hyperspectral imaging. Precision Agriculture, 15, 162–183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Li, J., Rao, X., & Ying, Y. (2011). Detection of common defects on oranges using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 78, 38–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Li, J., Rao, X., & Ying, Y. (2012a). Development of algorithms for detecting citrus canker based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 125–134.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Li, J., Rao, X., Wang, F., Wu, W., & Ying, Y. (2013). Automatic detection of common surface defects on oranges using combined lighting transform and image ratio methods. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 82, 59–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Li, J., Rao, X., Ying, Y., & Wang, D. (2010). Detection of navel oranges canker based on hyperspectral imaging technology. Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 26, 222–228.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Li, X., Lee, W. S., Li, M., Ehsani, R., Mishra, A., Yang, C., & Mangan, R. (2012b). Spectral difference analysis and airborne imaging classification for citrus greening infected trees. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 83, 32–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Li, X., Lee, W. S., Li, M., Ehsani, R., Mishra, A. R., Yang, C., & Mangan, R. L. (2015). Feasibility study on Huanglongbing (citrus greening) detection based on WorldView-2 satellite imagery. Biosystems Engineering, 132, 28–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Lopes, L. B., VanDeWall, H., Li, H. T., Venugopal, V., Li, H. K., Naydin, S., Hosmer, J., Levendusky, M., Zheng, H., Bentley, M. V., Levin, R., & Hass, M. A. (2010). Topical delivery of lycopene using microemulsions: enhanced skin penetration and tissue antioxidant activity. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 99, 1346–1357.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. López, J. J., Cobos, M., & Aguilera, E. (2011). Computer-based detection and classification of flaws in citrus fruits. Neural Computing and Applications, 20, 975–981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. López-García, F., Andreu, G., Blasco, J., Aleixos, N., & Valiente, J. M. (2010). Automatic detection of skin defects in citrus fruits using a multivariate image analysis approach. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 71, 189–197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Lorente, D., Aleixos, N., Gómez-Sanchis, J., Cubero, S., & Blasco, J. (2013a). Selection of optimal wavelength features for decay detection in citrus fruit using the ROC curve and neural networks. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(2), 530–541.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Lorente, D., Aleixos, N., Gómez-Sanchis, J., Cubero, S., García-Navarrete, O. L., & Blasco, J. (2012). Recent advances and applications of hyperspectral imaging for fruit and vegetable quality assessment. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(4), 1121–1142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Lorente, D., Blasco, J., Serrano, A. J., Soria-Olivas, E., Aleixos, N., & Gómez-Sanchis, J. (2013b). Comparison of ROC feature selection method for the detection of decay in citrus fruit using hyperspectral images. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(12), 3613–3619.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Lorente, D., Zude, M., Regen, C., Palou, L., Gómez-Sanchis, J., & Blasco, J. (2013c). Early decay detection in citrus fruit using laser-light backscattering imaging. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 86, 424–430.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Lorente, D., Zude, M., Idler, C., Gómez-Sanchis, J., & Blasco, J. (2015). Laser-light backscattering imaging for early decay detection in citrus fruit using both a statistical and a physical model. Journal of Food Engineering, 154, 76–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Maf Industries. (2016). VIOTEC brochure. http://mafindustries.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/viotec3.pdf. Accessed March 2016.

  70. Magwaza, L. S., Opara, U. L., Nieuwoudt, H., Cronje, P. J. R., Saeys, W., & Nicolaï, B. (2012). NIR spectroscopy applications for internal and external quality analysis of citrus fruit—a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(2), 425–444.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Mehta, S. S., & Burks, T. F. (2014). Vision-based control of robotic manipulator for citrus harvesting. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 102, 146–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Moltó, E., Blasco, J., & Gómez-Sanchis, J. (2010). Analysis of hyperspectral images of citrus fruits. In D.-W. Sun (Ed.), Hyperspectral imaging for food quality analysis and control (pp. 321–348). California: Academic Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  73. Moltó, E., Plá, F., & Juste, F. (1992). Vision systems for the location of citrus fruit in a tree canopy. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 52, 101–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Momin, A., Kondo, N., Kuramoto, M., Ogawa, Y., Yamamoto, K., & Shiigi, T. (2012). Investigation of excitation wavelength for fluorescence emission of citrus peels based on UV-VIS spectra. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 5, 126–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Momin, A., Kondo, N., Ogawa, Y., Ido, K., & Ninomiya, K. (2013b). Patterns of fluorescence associated with citrus peel defects. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 6, 54–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Momin, A., Kuramoto, M., Kondo, N., Ido, K., Ogawa, Y., Shiigi, T., & Ahmad, U. (2013a). Identification of UV-fluorescence components for detecting peel defects of lemon and yuzu using machine vision. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 6, 165–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Morgan, S. P., & Stockford, I. M. (2003). Surface-reflection elimination in polarization imaging of superficial tissue. Optics Letters, 28, 114–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Niphadkar, N. P., Burks, T. F., Qin, J., & Ritenour, M. (2013b). Edge effect compensation for citrus canker lesion detection due to light source variation—a hyperspectral imaging application. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 15, 314–327.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Niphadkar, N. P., Burks, T. F., Qin, J. W., & Ritenour, M. A. (2013a). Estimation of citrus canker lesion size using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 6, 41–51.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Obenland, D., Margosan, D., Smilanick, J. L., & Mackey, B. (2010). Ultraviolet fluorescence to identify navel oranges with poor peel quality and decay. HortTechnology, 20, 991–995.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Ogawa, Y., Abdul, M. M., Kuramoto, M., Kohno, Y., Shiigi, T., Yamamoto, K., & Kondo, K. (2011). Rotten part detection on citrus fruit surfaces by use of fluorescent images. The Review of Laser Engineering, 394, 255–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Okamoto, H., & Lee, W. S. (2009). Green citrus detection using hyperspectral imaging. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 66(2), 201–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Omid, M., Khojastehnazhand, M., & Tabatabaeefar, A. (2010). Estimating volume and mass of citrus fruits by image processing technique. Journal of Food Engineering, 100, 315–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Ottavian, M., Barolo, M., & García-Muñoz, S. (2013). Maintenance of machine vision systems for product quality assessment. Part I. Addressing changes in lighting conditions. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 52, 12309–12318.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Ottavian, M., Barolo, M., & García-Muñoz, S. (2014). Maintenance of machine vision systems for product quality assessment. Part II. Addressing camera replacement. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 53, 1529–1536.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Palou, L. (2014). Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum (green mold, blue mold). In S. Bautista-Baños (Ed.), Postharvest decay. Control strategies. London: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Palou, L., Smilanick, J. L., Montesinos-Herrero, C., Valencia-Chamorro, S., & Pérez-Gago, M. B. (2011). Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits. In Slaker (Ed.), Citrus fruits: properties, consumption and nutrition. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

    Google Scholar 

  88. Pongnumkul, S., Chaovalit, P., & Surasvadi, N. (2015). Applications of smartphone-based sensors in agriculture: a systematic review of research. Journal of Sensors, Open Access Article ID 195308.

  89. Pourreza, A., Lee, W. S., Ehsani, R., Schueller, J. K., & Raveh, E. (2015a). An optimum method for real-time in-field detection of Huanglongbing disease using a vision sensor. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 110, 221–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Pourreza, A., Lee, W. S., Etxeberria, E., & Banerjee, A. (2015b). An evaluation of a vision based sensor performance in Huanglongbing disease identification. Biosystems Engineering, 130, 13–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Qin, J., Burks, T. F., Kim, M. S., Chao, K., & Ritenour, M. A. (2008). Citrus canker detection using hyperspectral reflectance imaging and PCA-based image classification method. Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety, 2(3), 168–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Qin, J., Burks, T. F., Ritenour, M. A., & Gordon Bonn, W. (2009). Detection of citrus canker using hyperspectral reflectance imaging with spectral information divergence. Journal of Food Engineering, 93, 183–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Qin, J., Burks, T. F., Zhao, X., Niphadkar, N., & Ritenour, M. A. (2011). Multispectral detection of citrus canker using hyperspectral band selection. Transactions of the ASABE, 54, 2331–2341.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Qin, J., Burks, T. F., Zhao, X., Niphadkar, N., & Ritenour, M. A. (2012). Development of a two-band spectral imaging system for real-time citrus canker detection. Journal of Food Engineering, 108, 87–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Sengupta, S., & Lee, W. S. (2014). Identification and determination of the number of immature green citrus fruit under different ambient light conditions. Biosystems Engineering, 117, 51–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Shin, J. S., Lee, W. S., & Ehsani, R. (2012b). Postharvest citrus mass and size estimation using logistic classification model and watershed algorithm. Biosystems Engineering, 113(1), 42–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Shin, J. S., Lee, W. S., & Ehsani, R. J. (2012a). Machine vision based citrus mass estimation during post harvesting using supervised machine learning algorithms. Acta Horticulturae, 965, 209–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Slaughter, D., Obenland, D., Thompson, J., Arpaia, M. L., & Margosan, D. (2008). Non-destructive freeze damage detection in oranges using machine vision and ultraviolet fluorescence. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 48, 341–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Subramanian, V., Burks, T. F., & Arroyo, A. A. (2006). Machine vision and laser radar-based vehicle guidance systems for citrus grove navigation. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 53, 130–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Torregrosa, A., Albert, F., Aleixos, N., Ortiz, C., & Blasco, J. (2014). Analysis of the detachment of citrus fruits by vibration using artificial vision. Biosystems Engineering, 119, 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. van Dael, M., Lebotsa, S., Herremans, E., Verboven, P., Sijbers, J., Opara, U. L., Cronje, P. J., & Nicolaï, B. M. (2016). A segmentation and classification algorithm for online detection of internal disorders in citrus using X-ray radiographs. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 112, 205–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Vidal, A., Talens, P., Prats-Montalbán, J. M., Cubero, S., Albert, F., & Blasco, J. (2013). In-line estimation of the standard colour index of citrus fruits using a computer vision system developed for a mobile platform. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(12), 3412–3419.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Vijayarekha, K. (2012a). Segmentation techniques applied to citrus fruit images for external defect identification. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 4, 5313–5319.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Vijayarekha, K. (2012b). External defect classification of citrus fruit images using linear discriminant analysis clustering and ANN classifiers. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 4, 5484–5491.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Ye, X., Sakai, K., Asada, S.-i., & Sasao, A. (2008). Application of narrow-band TBVI in estimating fruit yield in citrus. Biosystems Engineering, 99, 179–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Zhao, X., Burks, T. F., Qin, J., & Ritenour, M. A. (2010). Effect of fruit harvest time on citrus canker detection using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety, 4, 126–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Zhu, R., Lu, L., Guo, J., Lu, H., Abudureheman, N., Yu, T., & Zheng, X. (2013). Postharvest control of green mold decay of citrus fruit using combined treatment with sodium bicarbonate and Rhodosporidium paludigenum. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6, 2925–2930.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA) through projects RTA2012-00062-C04-01 and RTA2012-00062-C04-03 with the support of European FEDER funds. The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the contributions that were made by all the students, postdocs, technicians and visiting scholars in the Precision Agriculture Laboratory at the University of Florida and the Computer Vision Laboratory at the Agricultural Engineering Centre of IVIA.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jose Blasco.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cubero, S., Lee, W.S., Aleixos, N. et al. Automated Systems Based on Machine Vision for Inspecting Citrus Fruits from the Field to Postharvest—a Review. Food Bioprocess Technol 9, 1623–1639 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-016-1767-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Citrus sorting
  • Quality inspection
  • Hyperspectral imaging
  • Citrus colour index
  • Citrus canker
  • Citrus decay
  • Citrus Huanglongbing
  • Citrus postharvest