Advertisement

Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 612–620 | Cite as

Impact of Dry-milled Germ Processing on Aqueous Protein and Oil Extraction

  • Lisa R. WilkenEmail author
  • Erin T. Ogle
  • Troy Lohrmann
  • Zivko L. Nikolov
Original Paper

Abstract

Reduced petroleum cost and public objection to using corn for bioenergy rather than food have challenged grain ethanol producers to come up with new bioprocess and coproducts that can add value but maintain ethanol cost competitiveness. Novel dry and wet milling fractionation processes of corn that could generate higher value coproducts and improve coproduct economics, long-term outlook, and economic stability of corn processing plants have been being recently proposed. Germ Wet Milling™ is such novel aqueous processing method designed to increase germ protein and oil concentration by water soaking and wet fractionation of dry-milled corn germ. The goal of this study was to investigate the sequential oil and protein extraction after Germ Wet Milling and to develop economically viable processes for producing protein concentrates. Corn protein concentrates were prepared after aqueous processing of dry-milled germ using membrane filtration or isoelectric precipitation. The amount of protein recovered was a function of the protein dispersibility index of the starting material, which depended on soak temperature and time. Extracts prepared after Germ Wet Milling™ contained 59.1 to 64.7 % protein (db), while concentrates had 64.9 to 82.4 % protein. The technique used for protein recovery also influenced the mass and protein yield and composition. For all treatments, membrane filtration was a more effective method than isoelectric precipitation for recovering protein from extract. Aqueous enzymatic oil extraction (AEOE) was used to evaluate the oil recovery potential after Germ Wet Milling. The effect of enzyme dosages and/or elimination of the acidic protease on oil extraction from high protein, high protein dispersibility index (PDI) corn germ and high protein, low PDI corn germ were evaluated. AEOE using a combination of cellulases and xylanase (Optimash XL®), an acidic protease (Fermgen®), and a basic protease (Optimase®) resulted in oil recoveries as high as 71.9 % of the initial oil content. A twofold reduction in enzyme dosages was possible with little or no effect on oil recoveries for both types of germ.

Keywords

Corn Enzyme Processing Oil extraction Protein 

Nomenclature

HPG

High protein, high PDI germ

LPG

High protein, low PDI germ

PDI

Protein dispersibility index

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Hans Foerster of DuPont Industrial Biosciences for providing the enzymes used in this work and Troy Lohrmann and Dan Hammes of Quality International Inc. (Elgin, IL) for financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Troy Lorhmann, Vice President at Quality Technology International Inc., has commercial interest in the Germ Wet Milling™ process and portion of the study was funded by Quality Technology International, Inc.

References

  1. Dickey, L. C., Cooke, P. H., Kurantz, M. J., McAloon, A. J., Parris, N., & Moreau, R. A. (2007). Using microwave heating and microscopy to study optimal corn germ yield with a bench-scale press. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 84, 489–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dickey, L. C., Kurantz, M. J., Cooke, P. H., Parris, N., & Moreau, R. A. (2008). Separation of oil from a fine dispersion of corn germ particles in water using a bubble column. Chemical Engineering Science, 63, 4555–4560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dickey, L. C., Kurantz, M. J., Johnston, D. B., McAloon, A. J., & Moreau, R. A. (2010). Grinding and cooking dry-fractionated corn germ to optimize aqueous enzymatic oil extraction. Industrial Crops and Products, 32, 36–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dickey, L. C., Kurantz, M. J., Johnston, D. B., McAloon, A. J., & Moreau, R. A. (2011). Modification of aqueous enzymatic oil extraction to increase the yield of corn oil from dry fractionated corn germ. Industrial Crops and Products, 34(1), 845–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dubois, D. K., & Hoover, W. J. (1981). Soya protein products in cereal grain foods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 58, 343–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Genencor (2008). Protex P: genencor subtilisin. Rochester, NY.: Danisco US Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Genencor (2010a). Fermgen: acid fungal protease enzyme for ethanol production. Rochester, NY.: Danisco US Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Genencor (2010b). Optimash XL: cellulase/xylanase for wheat and rye ethanol manufacturing. Rochester, NY.: Danisco US Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Ghosh, P. K., Jayas, D. S., & Agrawal, Y. C. (2007). Enzymatic hydrolysis of oilseeds for enhanced oil extraction: current status. ASABE Paper No. 076207. St. Joseph, Mich: ASABE.Google Scholar
  10. Heywood, A. A., Myers, D. J., Bailey, T. B., & Johnson, L. A. (2002). Functional properties of extruded-expelled soybean flours from value-enhanced soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 79, 699–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kampen,W.H.; Energenetics, Inc., assignee. (1995). Recovery of protein, protein isolate and/or starch from cereal grains. U.S. patent 5410021.Google Scholar
  12. Kashyap, M., Agrawal, Y., Ghosh, P., Jayas, D., Sarkar, B., & Singh, B. (2007). Oil extraction rates of enzymatically hydrolysed soybeans. Journal of Food Engineering, 81, 611–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Latif, S., & Anwar, F. (2011). Aqueous enzymatic sesame oil and protein extraction. Food Chemistry, 125(2), 679–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lawhorn, J.T. (1986). Process for recovery of protein from agricultural commodities prior to alcohol production U.S. patent 4,624,805.Google Scholar
  15. Lohrmann, T., Paustian, D., Hammes, D., & Nikolov, Z. (2008). Process for improving products of dry milling. U.S. patent application 20080279983.Google Scholar
  16. Moreau, R., Dickey, L., Johnston, D., & Hicks, K. (2009). A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-germ). Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 86(5), 469–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Moura, J. M. L. N., & Johnson, L. A. (2009a). Two-stage countercurrent enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of oil and protein from soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 86, 283–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Moura, J. M. L. N., Campbell, K., Mahfuz, A., Jung, S., Glatz, C. E., & Johnson, L. A. (2008). Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of oil and protein from soybeans and cream de-emulsification. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 85, 985–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Moura, J. M. L. N., de Almeida, N. M., & Johnson, L. A. (2009b). Scale-up of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 86, 809–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Moura, J. M. L. N., de Almeida, N. M., Jung, S., & Johnson, L. A. (2010). Flaking as a pretreatment for enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 87, 1507–1515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Muralidhara, H.S., Porter, M.A., Satyavolu, J.V., Sperber, W.H., Purtle, I; Cargill, Inc., assignee. (2003). Process for producing oilseed protein products. U.S. patent 6630195.Google Scholar
  22. Murthy, G. S., Sall, E. D., Metz, S. G., Foster, G., & Singh, V. (2009). Evaluation of a dry corn fractionation process for ethanol production with different hybrids. Industrial Crops and Products, 29, 67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nielsen, H. C., Inglett, G. E., Wall, J. S., & Donaldson, G. L. (1973). Corn germ protein isolate - preliminary studies on preparation and properties. Cereal Chemistry, 50(4), 435–443.Google Scholar
  24. Rao, A., Shallo, H. E., Ericson, A. P., & Thomas, R. L. (2002). Characterization of soy protein concentrate produced by membrane ultrafiltration. Journal of Food Science, 67(4), 1412–1418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rosenthal, A., Pyle, D. L., Niranjan, K., Gilmour, S., & Trinca, L. (2001). Combined effect of operational variables and enzyme activity in aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil and protein from soybean. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 28, 499–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Thomas, R. L., Ndife, L. I., Shallo, H., & Nelles, L. P.; Abbott Laboratories, assignee. (2001). Soy proteins and methods for their production. U. S. Patent 6,313,273.Google Scholar
  27. Wilken, L. R., & Nikolov, Z. L. (2010). Commercial opportunities and challenges for protein products from corn. ASABE Paper No. 1000002. St. Joseph, Mich: ASABE.Google Scholar
  28. Wilken, L. R., & Nikolov, Z. L. (2015). Aqueous Fractionation of dry-Milled Corn Germ for Food Protein Production. In V. Nedović, P. Raspor, J. Lević, V. Tumbas Šaponjac, & G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas (Eds.), Emerging and Traditional Technologies for Safe, Healthy and Quality Food (In Press). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Zayas, J. F. (1997). Functionality of proteins in food. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zayas, J. F., & Lin, C. S. (1989). Protein solubility of 2 hexane-defatted corn germ proteins and soy protein. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 13(3), 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang, S. B., Liu, X. J., Lu, Q. Y., Wang, Z. W., & Zhao, X. (2013). Enzymatic demulsification of the oil-rich emulsion obtained by aqueous extraction of peanut seeds. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 90(8), 1261–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa R. Wilken
    • 1
    Email author
  • Erin T. Ogle
    • 1
    • 2
  • Troy Lohrmann
    • 3
  • Zivko L. Nikolov
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Biological & Agricultural EngineeringKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  2. 2.Iowa Department of Natural ResourcesAtlanticUSA
  3. 3.Quality Technology International, Inc.ElginUSA
  4. 4.Biological & Agricultural EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations