Bioactives have shown excellent protective effect against chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. However, many of the bioactives like anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins and essential fatty acids are sensitive to surrounding environment stresses like pH, ionic strength, light, temperature, oxygen and gastro-intestinal (GI) conditions during transit. Hence, the functionality diminishes upon exposure to such unfriendly environment and leads to reduction in bioavailability. Double emulsions are designed to provide protection to bioactives in the innermost compartment through encapsulation and prevent loss of functionality in food matrix as well as during the GI transit. This article reviews the work done on double emulsion for food applications, covering various aspects of double emulsion like its matrix, constituents (aqueous phase, oil phase, emulsifiers, and other additives) and properties (viscosity, particle size, electrical conductivity and zeta potential). In addition to the stability of double emulsion, various means to express and modern techniques to measure it, the review also elucidates the role of newer emulsifiers and additives in improving the stability of double emulsion. The developments in target delivery of bioactives through double emulsion are highlighted. In vitro and in vivo studies proved target delivery of bioactives through double emulsion; however, confirmation through human trial is still pending.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Akhtar, M., & Dickinson, E. (2003). Emulsifying properties of whey protein-dextran conjugates at low pH and different salt concentrations. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 31(1–4), 125–132.
Appelqvist, I. A. M., Golding, M., Vreeker, R., & Zuidam, N. J. (2007). Emulsions as delivery systems in foods. In J. M. Lakkis (Ed.), Encapsulation and controlled release technologies in food systems (pp. 41–81). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Aronson, M. P., & Petko, M. F. (1993). Highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions: influence of electrolyte on their properties and stability. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 159(1), 134–149.
Aserin, A. (Ed.). (2008). Multiple emulsions: technology and applications. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Benichou, A., Aserin, A., & Garti, N. (2004). Double emulsions stabilized with hybrids of natural polymers for entrapment and slow release of active matters. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 108–109, 29–41.
Benichou, A., Aserin, A., & Garti, N. (2007). W/O/W double emulsions stabilized with WPI-polysaccharide complexes. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 294(1–3), 20–32.
Benna-Zayani, M., Kbir-Ariguib, N., Trabelsi-Ayadi, N., & Grossiord, J. L. (2008). Stabilisation of W/O/W double emulsion by polysaccharides as weak gels. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 316(1–3), 46–54.
Blanco-Prieto, M. J., Fattal, E., Gulik, A., Dedieu, J. C., Roques, B. P., & Couvreur, P. (1997). Characterization and morphological analysis of a cholecystokinin derivative peptide-loaded poly(lactide-coglycolide) microspheres prepared by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. Journal of Controlled Release, 43(1), 81–87.
Bozkir, A., & Hayta, G. (2004). Preparation and evaluation of multiple emulsions water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) as delivery system for influenza virus antigens. Journal of Drug Targeting, 12(3), 157–164.
Cameron, N. R. (2005). High internal phase emulsion templating as a route to well-defined porous polymers. Polymer, 46(5), 1439–1449.
Chanamai, R., & McClements, D. J. (2000). Creaming stability of flocculated monodisperse oil-in-water emulsions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 225(1), 214–218.
Charcosset, C. (2009). Preparation of emulsions and particles by membrane emulsification for the food processing industry. Journal of Food Engineering, 92(3), 241–249.
Chen, R., Dong, P. F., Xu, J. H., Wang, Y. D., & Luo, G. S. (2012). Controllable microfluidic production of gas-in-oil-in-water emulsions for hollow microspheres with thin polymer shells. Lab on a Chip, 12(20), 3858–3860.
Cho, Y. H., & Park, J. (2003). Evaluation of process parameters in the O/W/O multiple emulsion method for flavor encapsulation. Journal of Food Science, 68(2), 534–538.
Choi, M. J., Briançon, S., Bazile, D., Royere, A., Min, S. G., & Fessi, H. (2007). Effect of cryoprotectant and freeze-drying process on the stability of W/O/W emulsions. Drying Technology, 25(5), 809–819.
Cournarie, F., Savelli, M. P., Rosilio, V., Bretez, F., Vauthier, C., Grossiord, J. L., et al. (2004). Insulin-loaded W/O/W multiple emulsions: comparison of the performances of systems prepared with medium-chain-triglycerides and fish oil. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 58(3), 477–482.
Couvreur, P., Blanco-Prieto, M. J., Puisieux, F., Roques, B., & Fattal, E. (1997). Multiple emulsion technology for the design of microspheres containing peptide and oligopeptides. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 28(1), 85–96.
Danny, A., & Buttriss, J. (2005). Plant foods and health focus on plant bioactives. Norwich, UK: British Nutrition Foundation/EuroFIR.
Dauchet, L., Amouyel, P., Hercberg, S., & Dallongeville, J. (2006). Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Journal of Nutrition, 136(10), 2588–2593.
Davis, S. S., & Walker, I. M. (1983). Measurement of the yield of multiple emulsion droplets by a fluorescent tracer technique. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 17(2–3), 203–213.
Davis, S. S., & Walker, I. M. (1987). Multiple emulsions as targetable delivery systems. Methods in Enzymology, 149, 51–64.
Denny, S. I., Thompson, R. L., & Margetts, B. M. (2003). Dietary factors in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 3(2), 130–136.
Dickinson, E. (1993). Protein-polysaccharide interactions in food colloids. In E. Dickinson & P. Walstra (Eds.), Food colloids and polymers: stability and mechanical properties (pp. 77–93). London: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Dickinson, E. (2011). Double emulsions stabilized by food biopolymers. Food Biophysics, 6(1), 1–11.
Dickinson, E., & Euston, S. R. (1991). Stability of food emulsions containing both protein and polysaccharide. In E. Dickinson (Ed.), Food polymers, gels and colloids (pp. 132–146). London: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Dickinson, E., & McClements, D. J. (1996). Water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions. In E. Dickinson & D. J. McClements (Eds.), Advances in food colloids (pp. 280–300). Cambridge: Blackie Academic and Professional.
Dickinson, E., Evison, J., & Owusu, R. K. (1991). Preparation of fine protein-stabilized water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 5(5), 481–485.
Dickinson, E., Evison, J., Owusu, R. K., & Williams, A. (1994). Protein stabilized water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. In G. O. Phillips, P. A. Williams, & D. J. Wedlock (Eds.), Gums and stabilisers for the food industry (pp. 91–101). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dickinson, E., Evison, J., Owusu, R. K., & Zhu, Q. (1993). Studies of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsions: stabilization and controlled nutrient release. In E. Dickinson & P. Walstra (Eds.), Food colloids and polymers: stability and mechanical properties (pp. 243–249). London: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Dunlap, C. A., & Cote, G. L. (2005). β-Lactoglobulin-dextran conjugates: effect of polysaccharide size on emulsion stability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(2), 419–423.
Edris, A., & Bergnstahl, B. (2001). Encapsulation of orange oil in a spray dried double emulsion. Nahrung Food, 45(2), 133–137.
Einhorn-Stoll, U., Ulbrich, M., Sever, S., & Kunzek, H. (2005). Formation of milk protein-pectin conjugates with improved emulsifying properties by controlled dry heating. Food Hydrocolloids, 19(2), 329–340.
Evison, J., Dickinson, E., Owusu, R., & Williams, A. (1995). Formulation and properties of protein-stabilized water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions. In E. Dickinson & D. Lorient (Eds.), Food macromolecules and colloids (pp. 235–243). London: Special Publication-Royal Society of Chemistry.
Farahmand, S., Tajerzadeh, H., & Farboud, E. S. (2006). Formulation and evaluation of a vitamin C multiple emulsion. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 11(2), 255–261.
Fechner, A., Knoth, A., Scherze, I., & Muschiolik, G. (2007). Stability and release properties of double-emulsions stabilised by caseinate-dextran conjugates. Food Hydrocolloids, 21(5), 943–952.
Florence, A. T., & Whitehill, D. (1981). Some features of breakdown in water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 79(1), 243–256.
Frank, K., Köhler, K., & Schuchmann, H. P. (2011). Formulation of labile hydrophilic ingredients in multiple emulsions: influence of the formulation's composition on the emulsion's stability and on the stability of entrapped bioactives. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 32(12), 1753–1758.
Frank, K., Walz, E., Graf, V., Greiner, R., Kohler, K., & Schuchmann, H. P. (2012). Stability of anthocyanin-rich w/o/w-emulsions designed for intestinal release in gastrointestinal environment. Journal of Food Science, 77(12), N51–N58.
Gallarate, M., Carlotti, M. E., Trotta, M., & Bovo, S. (1999). On the stability of ascorbic acid in emulsified systems for topical and cosmetic use. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 188(2), 233–241.
Garti, N. (1997). Double emulsions—scope, limitations and new achievements. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 123–124, 233–246.
Garti, N., & Benichou, A. (2001). Double emulsions for controlled release applications progress and trends. In J. Sjoblom (Ed.), Encyclopedic handbook of emulsion technology (pp. 377–407). New York: Marcel Dekker.
Garti, N., Aserin, A., Tiunova, I., & Binyamin, H. (1999). Double emulsions of water-in-oil-in-water stabilized by α-form fat microcrystals. Part 1: selection of emulsifiers and fat microcrystalline particles. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 76(3), 383–389.
Garti, N., Binyamin, H., & Aserin, A. (1998). Stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions by submicrocrystalline alpha-form fat particles. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 75(12), 1825–1831.
Giroux, H. J., Constantineau, S., Fustier, P., Champagne, C. P., St-Gelais, D., Lacroix, M., et al. (2013). Cheese fortification using water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions as carrier for water soluble nutrients. International Dairy Journal, 29(2), 107–114.
Gu, Y. S., Decker, E. A., & McClements, D. J. (2006). Irreversible thermal denaturation of betalactoglobulin retards adsorption of carrageenan onto beta-lactoglobulin-coated droplets. Langmuir, 22(18), 7480–7486.
Harnsilawat, T., Pongsawatmanit, R., & McClements, D. J. (2006). Stabilization of model beverage cloud emulsions using protein-polysaccharide electrostatic complexes formed at the oil-water interface. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(15), 5540–5547.
Hearn, T. L., Olsen, M., & Hunter, R. L. (1996). Multiple emulsions oral vaccine vehicles for inducing immunity or tolerance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 778, 388–389.
Hino, T., Shimabayashi, S., Tanaka, M., Nakano, M., & Okochi, H. (2001). Improvement of encapsulation efficiency of water-in-oil-in-water emulsion with hypertonic inner aqueous phase. Journal of Microencapsulation, 18(1), 19–28.
Hoensch, H. P., & Kirch, W. (2005). Potential role of flavonoids in the prevention of intestinal neoplasia: a review of their mode of action and their clinical perspectives. International Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer, 35(3), 187–195.
Hughes, E., Acquistapace, S., Gunes, D. Z., Atkins, T., Homewood, P. & Gray, R. (2012). Double encapsulated emulsion generation using a novel dual chip design. Retrieve from http://www.dolomite-microfluidics.com/images/stories/PDFs/application_notes/Double_encapsulated_emulsion_generation_using_a_novel_dual_chip_design.pdf. Accessed 19 May 2014.
Hung, H. C., Joshipura, K. J., Jiang, R., Hu, F. B., Hunter, D., Smith-Warner, S. A., et al. (2004). Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96(21), 1577–1584.
ICI Americas Inc. (1980). The HLB system – a time saving guide to emulsifier selection. Retrieve from http://www.firp.ula.ve/archivos/historicos/76_Book_HLB_ICI.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2014.
IFST. (2014). Nanotechnology. Institute of food, science and technology, London. Available on: http://www.ifst.org/print/125. Accessed 21 May 2014.
Jahaniaval, F., Kakuda, Y., & Abraham, V. (2003). Characterization of a double emulsion system (oil-in-water-in-oil emulsion) with low solid fats: microstructure. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 80(1), 25–31.
Jiao, J., & Burgess, D. J. (2003). Rheology and stability of water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions containing Span 83 and Tween 80. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, 5(1), 62–73.
Jimenez-Alvarado, R., Beristain, C. I., Medina-Torres, L., Roman-Guerrero, A., & Vernon-Carter, E. J. (2009). Ferrous bisglycinate content and release in w1/o/w2 multiple emulsions stabilized by protein-polysaccharide complexes. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(8), 2425–2433.
Joshipura, K. J., Ascherio, A., & Manson, J. E. (1999). Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(13), 1233–1239.
Joshipura, K. J., Hu, F. B., Manson, J. E., Stampfer, M. J., Rimm, E. B., Speizer, F. E., et al. (2001). The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134(12), 1106–1114.
Kaimainen, M., Marze, S., Jarvenpaa, E., Anton, M., & Huopalahti, R. (2014). Encapsulation of betalain into w/o/w double emulsion and release during in vitro intestinal lipid digestion. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie - Food Science and Technology. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2014.10.016.
Kanouni, M., Rosano, H. L., & Naouli, N. (2002). Preparation of a stable double emulsion (w1/o/w2): role of the interfacial films on the stability of the system. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 99(3), 229–254.
Kato, A. (1996). Functional protein-polysaccharide conjugates. Comments on Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 3, 139–153.
Kato, A., Sasaki, Y., Furuta, R., & Kobayashi, K. (1990). Functional protein-polysaccharide conjugate prepared by controlled dry-heating of ovalbumin-dextran mixtures. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 54(1), 107–112.
Kaufman, S. F. M., & Palzer, S. (2011). Food structure engineering for nutrition, health and wellness. Procedia Food Science, 1, 1479–1486.
Key, T. J., Allen, N., Appleby, P., Overvad, K., Tjønneland, A., Miller, A., et al. (2004a). Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). International Journal of Cancer, 109(1), 119–124.
Key, T. J., Schatzkin, A., Willett, W. C., Allen, N. E., Spencer, E. A., & Travis, R. C. (2004b). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer. Public Health Nutrition, 7(1a), 187–200.
Khaw, K. T., Bingham, S., Welch, A., Luben, R., Wareham, N., & Oakes, S. (2001). Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. The Lancet, 357(9257), 657–663.
Kim, H. J., Decker, E. A., & McClements, D. J. (2006). Preparation of multiple emulsions based on thermodynamic incompatibility of heat-denatured whey protein and pectin solutions. Food Hydrocolloids, 20(5), 586–595.
Knoth, A., Scherze, I., & Muschiolik, G. (2005). Stability of water-in-oil emulsions containing phosphatidylcholine depleted lecithin. Food Hydrocolloids, 19(3), 635–640.
Kothawade, P. D., Gangurde, H. H., Surawase, R. K., Wagh, M. A., & Tamizharasi, S. (2011). Conventional and novel approaches for colon specific drug delivery: a review. e -Journal of Science and Technology (e-JST), 6(4), 33–56.
Kralovec, J. A., Zhang, S., Zhang, W., & Barrow, C. J. (2012). A review of the progress in enzymatic concentration and microencapsulation of omega-3 rich oil from fish and microbial sources. Food Chemistry, 131(2), 639–644.
Kumar, A. D. (2011). Masters in Technology thesis in Dairy Technology submitted to National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University). Karnal, Haryana: India. Evaluation of selected matrix material for developing emulsion based delivery system for Pueraria tuberose/Vidarikand extract.
Kumar, R., Kumar, M. S., & Mahadevan, N. (2012). Multiple emulsions: a review. International Journal of Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Research, 2(1), 9–19.
Lawson, & Braud, L. (2003). Water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions: targeted drug delivery under investigation. (Resource: engineering and technology for a sustainable world). Niles, Michigan: American society of agricultural and biological engineer.
Lesmes, U., & McClements, D. J. (2009). Structure-function relationships to guide rational design and fabrication of particulate food delivery systems. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 20(10), 448–457.
Li, B., Jiang, Y., Liu, F., Chai, Z., Li, Y., Li, Y., et al. (2012). Synergistic effects of whey protein-polysaccharide complexes on the controlled release of lipid soluble and water soluble vitamins in w1/o/w2 double emulsion systems. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47(2), 248–254.
Liu, R., Huang, S., Wan, Y., Ma, G., & Su, Z. (2006). Preparation of insulin-loaded PLA/PLGA microcapsules by a novel membrane emulsification method and its release in vitro. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 51(1), 30–38.
Lutz, R., & Garti, N. (2006). Double emulsions. In P. Somasundaran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of surface and colloids science (pp. 1816–1845). London: Taylor and Francis.
Lutz, R., Aserin, A., Wicker, L., & Garti, N. (2009). Release of electrolytes from W/O/W double emulsions stabilized by a soluble complex of modified pectin and whey protein isolate. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 74(1), 178–185.
Malvern Instruments. (2011). Zeta potentail - An introduction in 30 minutes. Zetasizer nano series technical note. Retrieve from http://www3.nd.edu/~rroeder/ame60647/slides/zeta.pdf. Accessed 5 November 2014.
Malvern Instruments. (2012). A Basic Guide to Particle Characterazation. Retrieve from http://golik.co.il/Data/ABasicGuidtoParticleCharacterization(2)_1962085150.pdf. Accessed 05 April 2014.
Mark, D., Von Stetten, F., & Zengerle, R. (2012). Microfluidic apps for off-the-shelf instruments. Lab on a Chip, 12(14), 2464–2468.
Matsumoto, S. (1983). Development of w/o/w type dispersion during phase inversion of concentrated w/o emulsion. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 94(2), 362–368.
Matsumoto, S., Inove, T., Kohda, M., & Ohta, T. (1980). An attempt to estimate stability of the oil layer in w/o/w emulsions by means of viscometry. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 77(2), 564–565.
Matsumoto, S., Koh, Y., & Michiura, A. (1985). Preparation of w/o/w emulsions in an edible form on the basis of phase inversion technique. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 6(5), 507–520.
McClements, D. J. (2005). Food emulsions: principles, practices and techniques (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
McClements, D. J., & Rao, J. (2011). Food-grade nanoemulsions: formulation, fabrication, properties, performance, biological fate, and potential toxicity. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 51(4), 285–330.
Mezzenga, R., Folmer, B., & Hughes, E. (2004). Design of double emulsions by osmotic pressure tailoring. Langmuir, 20(9), 3574–3582.
Mishra, S., Mann, B., & Joshi, V. K. (2001). Functional improvement of whey protein concentrate on interaction with pectin. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(1), 9–15.
Mohanraj, V. J., & Chen, Y. (2006). Nanoparticles: a review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 5(1), 561–573.
Morais, J. M., Santos, O. D. H., & Friberg, S. E. (2010). Some fundamentals of the one-step formation of double emulsions. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 31(8), 1019–1026.
Morris, G., Sims, I. M., Robertson, A. J., & Furneaux, R. H. (2004). Investigation into the physical and chemical properties of sodium caseinate-maltodextrin glyco-conjugates. Food Hydrocolloids, 18(6), 1007–1014.
Muschiolik, G., Scherze, I., Preissler, P., Weiss, J., Knoth, A., & Fechner, A. (2006). Multiple emulsions—preparation and stability. 13th World Congress of Food Science and Technology, IUFoST. doi:10.1051/IUFoST:20060043.
Muschiolik, G., Weiss, J., & Scherze, I. (2004). Microgel as carrier. Baking + Sweets, 4(2), 20.
Nanocomposix. (2012). Guidelines for zeta potential analysis of nano particles. Retrieve from http://nanocomposix.com/sites/default/files/nanoComposix%20Guidelines%20for%20Zeta%20Potential%20Analysis%20of%20Nanoparticles.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2014.
O’Dwyer, S. P., O’Beirne, D., Eidhin, D. N., Hennessy, A. A., & O’Kennedy, B. T. (2013). Formation, rheology and susceptibility to lipid oxidation of multiple emulsions (o/w/o) in table spreads containing omega-3 rich oils. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie - Food Science and Technology, 51(2), 484–491.
O’Regan, J., & Mulvihill, D. M. (2009a). Water soluble inner aqueous phase markers as indicators of the encapsulation properties of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with sodium caseinate. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(8), 2339–2345.
O’Regan, J., & Mulvihill, D. M. (2009b). Preparation, characterisation and selected functional properties of sodium caseinate-maltodextrin conjugates. Food Chemistry, 115(4), 1257–1267.
O’Regan, J., & Mulvihill, D. M. (2010). Sodium caseinate-maltodextrin conjugate stabilized double emulsions: encapsulation and stability. Food Research International, 43(1), 224–231.
Okochi, H., & Nakano, M. (2000). Preparation and evaluation of w/o/w type emulsions containing vancomycin. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 45(1), 5–26.
Omotosho, J. A., Whateley, T. L., Law, T. K., & Florence, A. T. (1986). The nature of the oil phase and the release of solutes from multiple (w/o/w) emulsions. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 38(12), 865–870.
Onwulata, C. I. (2012). Encapsulation of new active ingredients. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 3, 183–202.
Owusu, R. K., Zhu, Q., & Dickinson, E. (1992). Controlled release of L-tryptophan and vitamin B2 from model water/oil/water multiple emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 6(5), 443–453.
Pal, R. (2008). Viscosity models for multiple emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 22(3), 428–438.
Pays, K., Giermanska-Kahn, J., Pouligny, B., Bibette, J., & Leal-Calderon, F. (2002). Double emulsions: how does release occur? Journal of Controlled Release, 79(1–3), 193–205.
Perrechil, F. A., Santana, R. C., Lima, D. B., Polastro, M. Z., & Cunha, R. L. (2014). Emulsifying properties of Maillard conjugates produced from sodium caseinate and locust bean gum. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 31(02), 429–438.
Pimentel-González, D. J., Campos-Montiel, R. G., Lobato-Calleros, C., Pedroza-Islas, R., & Vernon-Carter, E. J. (2009). Encapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in double emulsions formulated with sweet whey as emulsifier and survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Food Research International, 42(2), 292–297.
Prakash, W. V. (2012). Studies on design of micro/nano emulsion based delivery system for potential nutraceuticals using dairy based ingredients. Masters in Technology thesis in Dairy Technology submitted to National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal, Haryana, India.
Rambhau, D., Phadke, D. S., & Dorle, A. K. (1977). Evaluation of o/w emulsion stability through zeta potential-I. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 28(4), 183–196.
Rao, J., & McClements, D. J. (2010). Stabilization of phase inversion temperature nanoemulsions by surfactant displacement. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(11), 7059–7066.
Rodríguez-Huezo, M. E., Pedroza-Islas, R., Prado-Barragán, L. A., Beristain, C. I., & Vernon-Carter, E. J. (2004). Microencapsulation by spray drying of multiple emulsions containing carotenoids. Journal of Food Science, 69(7), 351–359.
Rosano, H. L., Gandolfo, F. G., & Hidrot, J. P. (1998). Stability of w1/o/w2 multiple emulsions: influence of ripening and interfacial interactions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 138(1), 109–121.
Sapei, L., Naqvi, M. A., & Rousseau, D. (2012). Stability and release properties of double emulsions for food applications. Food Hydrocolloids, 27(2), 316–323.
Scherze, I., Knöfel, R., & Muschiolik, G. (2005). Automated image analysis as a control tool for multiple emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 19(3), 617–624.
Scherze, I., Knoth, A., & Muschiolik, G. (2006). Effect of emulsification method on the properties of lecithin- and PGPR-stabilized water-in-oil-emulsions. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 27(4), 427–434.
Schmitt, C., Sanchez, C., Desobry-Banon, S., & Hardy, J. (1998). Structure and techno-functional properties of protein-polysaccharide complexes: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 38(8), 689–753.
Shaw, L. A., McClements, D. J., & Decker, E. A. (2007). Spray-dried multilayered emulsions as a delivery method for ω-3 fatty acids into food systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(8), 3112–3119.
Shepherd, R., Robertson, A., & Ofman, D. (2000). Dairy glycoconjugate emulsifiers: casein-maltodextrin. Food Hydrocolloids, 14(4), 281–286.
Silva, M. R., Contente, D. M. L., & Filho, P. A. R. (1997). Ascorbic acid liberation from o/w/o multiple emulsions. Cosmetics and Toiletries, 112(12), 85–87.
Srinivasan, M. (1998). Formation and stability of oil-in-water caseinate emulsions. Doctor of Philosophy thesis in Food Technology submitted to Riddet Institute. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University.
Stevanovic, M., & Uskokovic, D. (2009). Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-based micro and nanoparticles for the controlled drug delivery of vitamins. Current Nanoscience, 5(1), 1–14.
Su, J. (2008). Formation and stability of food-grade water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology thesis submitted to Riddet Institute. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University.
Su, J., Flanagan, J., & Singh, H. (2008). Improving encapsulation efficiency and stability of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions using a modified gum Arabic (Acacia: Super GUM). Food Hydrocolloids, 22(1), 112–120.
Su, J., Flanagan, J., Hemar, Y., & Singh, H. (2006). Synergistic effects of polyglycerol ester of polyricinoleic acid and sodium caseinate on the stabilisation of water-oil-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 20(2–3), 261–268.
Tadros, T. F. (2008). Colloids in cosmetics and personal care (Vol. 4). Weinheim: Wiley.
Tadros, T. F., Taelman, M. C., & Dederen, J. C. (1998). Multiple emulsions with polymeric surfactants. In J. L. Grossiord & M. Seiller (Eds.), Multiple emulsions: structure, properties and applications (pp. 117–137). Paris: Editions de Sante.
Taki, J., Isomura, T., Kanda, K., Kawahara, A., Maruyama, K., & Kusumoto, S. (2007). w1/o/w2-type double emulsion dressing and method for production thereof. Japan Patent No. JP.PCT/JP2006/320550.
Tavani, A., Spertini, L., Bosetti, C., Parpinel, M., Gnagarella, P., Bravi, F., et al. (2006). Intake of specific flavonoids and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italy. Public Health Nutrition, 9(3), 369–374.
van der Graff, S., Schroen, C. G. P. H., & Boom, R. M. (2005). Preparation of double emulsions by membrane emulsification: a review. Journal of Membrane Science, 251(1–2), 7–15.
van-Gils, C. H., Peeters, P. H., & Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. (2005). Consumption of vegetables and fruits and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(2), 183–193.
Vega, C., & Roos, Y. H. (2006). Invited review: spray-dried dairy and dairy-like emulsions-compositional considerations. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(2), 383–401.
Vermeir, L. (2011). Formulation and characterization aspects of low fat whipping cream by water/oil/water technology. Master of Science in Food Technology thesis submitted to The Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Vladisavljevic, G. T., & Williams, R. A. (2005). Recent developments in manufacturing emulsions and particulate products using membranes. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 113(1), 1–20.
Walstra, P. (2003). Physical chemistry of foods. New York: Marcel Decker.
WHO/FAO. (2002). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a Joint FAO/WHO consultation, Geneva, 28 January- 1 February 2002. Geneva: WHO.
Xu, J. H., Chen, R., Wang, Y. D., & Luo, G. S. (2012). Controllable gas/liquid/liquid double emulsions in a dual-coaxial microfluidic device. Lab on a Chip, 12(11), 2029–2036.
Xu, J. H., Ge, X. H., Chen, R., & Luo, G. S. (2014). Microfluidic preparation and structure evolution of double emulsions with two phase cores. RSC Advances, 4, 1900–1906.
Yan, J., & Pal, R. (2001). Osmotic swelling behaviour of globules of W/O/W emulsion liquid membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 190(1), 79–91.
Yoshida, K., Sekine, T., Matsuzaki, F., Yanaki, T., & Yamaguchi, M. (1999). Stability of vitamin A in oil-in-water-in-oil type multiple emulsions. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 76(2), 195–200.
Zeeb, B., Zhang, H., Gibis, M., Fischer, L., & Weiss, J. (2013). Influence of buffer on the preparation of multilayered oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by proteins and polysaccharides. Food Research International, 53(1), 325–333.
About this article
Cite this article
Lamba, H., Sathish, K. & Sabikhi, L. Double Emulsions: Emerging Delivery System for Plant Bioactives. Food Bioprocess Technol 8, 709–728 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-014-1468-6
- Particle size
- Nano emulsion
- Target delivery
- Zeta potential