Skip to main content

Improving Storability of Fresh Strawberries with Controlled Release Chlorine Dioxide in Perforated Clamshell Packaging

Abstract

Fresh strawberries have short shelf life because of rapid weight loss, softening, and decay. The objective of this research was to study the response of strawberries to ClO2 when applied to the fruit using a controlled release pad. Four experiments were conducted over 2011 to 2013. Strawberries were packed in perforated commercial clamshells, with or without ClO2 treatments, and stored at 1 and 6 °C for up to 14 days and at 10 and 20 °C for up to 7 days. The effect of ClO2 on strawberries was assessed by measuring decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, volatile composition, and stomate activity during storage. Chlorine dioxide treatments induced closing of stomata, markedly slowed weight loss and softening, and reduced decay incidence of strawberry fruit at 10 °C or lower temperatures, but not at 20 °C. Fruit flavor profiles were not affected by ClO2 treatment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Ache, P., Becker, D., Ivashikina, N., Dietrich, P., Roelfsema, M. R. G., & Hedrich, R. (2000). GORK, a delayed outward rectifier expressed in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, is a K+ selective, K+sensing ion channel. FEBS Letters, 486(2), 93–98.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Aghdama, M. S., Hassanpouraghdamb, M. B., Paliyathc, G., & Farmanid, B. (2012). The language of calcium in postharvest life of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Scientia Horticulturae, 114, 102–115.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Akagi, A., & Stotz, H. U. (2007). Effects of pathogen polygalacturonase, ethylene, and firmness on interactions between pear fruits and Botrytis cinerea. Plant Disease, 91(10), 1337–1344.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alejandro, T.-C., Francisco, L.-G., Adrian, S. F. A., Francisco, A.-H., & Trevor, V. S. (2012). Chlorine dioxide and chlorine effectiveness to prevent Escherichia coli O157:H7 and salmonella cross-contamination on fresh-cut red chard. Food Control, 23, 325–332.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Artés, F., Gómez, P., Aguayo, E., Escalona, V., & Artés-Hernández, F. (2009). Sustainable sanitation techniques for keeping quality and safety of fresh-cut plant commodities. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 51, 287–296.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bai, J., & Plotto, A. (2011). Coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables. In Baldwin, Hagenmaier, & Bai (Eds.), Edible coatings and films to improve food quality (2nd ed., pp. 185–242). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Bai, J., Baldwin, E. A., Imahori, Y., Kostenyuk, I., Burns, J., & Brecht, J. K. (2011). Chilling and heating may regulate C6 volatile aroma production by different mechanisms in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 60(2), 111–120.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blanch, M., Goni, O., Sanchez-Ballesta, M. T., Escribano, M. I., & Merodio, C. (2012). Characterisation and functionality of fructo-oligosaccharides affecting water status of strawberry fruit (Fragraria vesca cv. Mara de Bois) during postharvest storage. Food Chemistry, 134(2), 912–919.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blatt, M. R., & Armstrong, F. (1993). K+ channels of stomatal guard-cells abscisic-acid-evoked control of the outward rectifier mediated by cytopplasmic pH. Planta, 191(3), 330–341.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bonnin, E., & Lahaye, M. (2013). Contribution of cell wall-modifying enzymes to the texture of fleshy fruits. The example of apple. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 78(3), 417–427.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chéour, F., Willemot, C., Arul, J., Makhlouf, J., & Desjardins, Y. (1991). Postharvest response of two strawberry cultivars to foliar application of CaCl2. HortScience, 26(9), 1186–1188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dong, J., Zhang, Y. T., Tang, X. W., Jin, W. M., & Han, Z. H. (2013). Differences in volatile ester composition between Fragaria x ananassa and F. vesca and implications for strawberry aroma patterns. Scientia Horticulturae, 150, 47–53.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Du, J., Han, Y., & Linton, R. H. (2003). Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apple surfaces. Food Microbiology, 20, 583–591.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Du, J. H., Fu, M. R., Li, M. M., & Xia, W. (2007). Effects of chlorine dioxide gas on postharvest physiology and storage quality of green bell pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. var. Longrum). Agricultural Sciences in China, 6(2), 214–219.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Elghaouth, A., Arul, J., Ponnampalam, R., & Boulet, M. (1991). Chitosan coating effect on storability and quality of fresh strawberries. Journal of Food Science, 56(6), 1618–1620.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gómez-López, V. M., Devlieghere, F., Ragaert, P., & Debevere, J. (2007). Shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots by gaseous chlorine dioxide. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 116, 221–227.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gómez-López, V. M., Ragaert, P., Jeyachchandran, V., Debevere, J., & Devlieghere, F. (2008). Shelf-life of minimally processed lettuce and cabbage treated with gaseous chlorine dioxide and cysteine. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 121, 74–83.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Han, Y., Selby, T. L., Schultzek, K. K., Nelsom, P. E., & Linton, R. H. (2004). Decontamination of strawberries using batch and continuous chlorine dioxide gas treatment. Journal of Food Protection, 67(11), 2450–2455.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hosy, E., Vavasseur, A., Mouline, K., Dreyer, I., Gaymard, F., Poree, F., et al. (2003). The Arabidopsis outward K+ channel gork is involved in regulation of stomatal movements and plant transpiration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(9), 5549–5554.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jouquand, C., Chandler, C., Plotto, A., & Goodner, K. (2008). A sensory and chemical analysis of fresh strawberries over harvest dates and seasons reveals factors that affect eating quality. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 133(6), 859–867.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, S. Y., Costello, M., & Kang, D. H. (2004). Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer of lettuce leaves. Journal of Food Protection, 67(7), 1371–1376.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maguire, K. M., Banks, N. H., Lang, A., & Gordon, I. L. (2000). Harvest date, cultivar, orchard, and tree effects on water vapor permeance in apples. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 125(1), 100–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahmoud, B. S. M., Bhagat, A. R., & Linton, R. H. (2007). Inactivation kinetics of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by chlorine dioxide gas. Food Microbiology, 24, 736–744.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mahmoud, B. S. M., Vaidya, N. A., Corvalan, C. M., & Linton, R. H. (2008). Inactivation kinetics of inoculated Escherichia coli O157: H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella poona on whole cantaloupe by chlorine dioxide gas. Food Microbiology, 25(7), 857–865.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mahovic, M. J., Tenney, J. D., & Bartz, J. A. (2007). Applications of chlorine dioxide gas for control of bacterial soft rot in tomatoes. Plant Disease, 91(10), 1316–1320.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meilgaard, M., Civille, G. V., & Carr, B. T. (1999). Sensory evaluation techniques (3rd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Ng, C. K. Y., Carr, K., McAinsh, M. R., Powell, B., & Hetherington, A. M. (2001). Drought-induced guard cell signal transduction involves sphingosine-1-phosphate. Nature, 410(6828), 596–599.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Paniagua, A. C., East, A. R., Hindmarsh, J. P., & Heyes, J. A. (2013). Moisture loss is the major cause of firmness change during postharvest storage of blueberry. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 79, 13–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Paull, R. E., Gross, K., & Qiu, Y. X. (1999). Changes in papaya cell walls during fruit ripening. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 16(1), 79–89.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Perez, A., Ben-Arie, R., Dinoor, A., Genizi, A., & Prusky, D. (1995). Prevention of black spot disease in persimmon fruit by gibberellic acid and iprodione treatments. Phytopathology, 85, 221–225.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pieniazek, S. A. (1944). Physical characteristics of the skin in relation to apple fruit transpiration. Plant Physiology, 19, 529–536.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson, S. D., Plewa, M. J., Wagner, E. D., Schoeny, R., & DeMarini, D. M. (2007). Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutation Research, 636, 178–242.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Romanazzi, G., Feliziani, E., Santini, M., & Landi, L. (2013). Effectiveness of postharvest treatment with chitosan and other resistance inducers in the control of storage decay of strawberry. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 75, 24–27.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rose, J. K. C., Hadfield, K. A., Labavitch, J. M., & Bennett, A. B. (1998). Temporal sequence of cell wall disassembly in rapidly ripening melon fruit. Plant Physiology, 117(2), 345–361.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shin, Y. J., Song, H. Y., & Song, B. K. (2012). Effect of a combined treatment of rice bran protein film packaging with aqueous chlorine dioxide washing and ultraviolet-C irradiation on the postharvest quality of 'Goha' strawberries. Journal of Food Engineering, 113(3), 374–379.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simons, L. K., & Sanguansri, P. (1997). Advances in the washing of minimally processed vegetables. Food Australia, 49(2), 75–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh, N., Singh, R. K., Bhunia, A. K., & Stroshine, R. L. (2002). Efficacy of chlorine dioxide, ozone, and thyme essential oil or a sequential washing in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce and baby carrots. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 35(8), 720–729.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Steen, C. V., Jacxsens, L., Devlieghere, F., & Debevere, J. (2002). Combining high oxygen atmospheres with low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging to improve the keeping quality of strawberries and raspberries. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 26, 49–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Techavises, N., & Hikida, Y. (2008). Development of a mathematical model for simulating gas and water vapor exchanges in modified atmosphere packaging with macroscopic perforations. Journal of Food Engineering, 85, 94–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trinetta, V., Morgan, M. T., & Linton, R. H. (2010). Use of high-concentration-short-time chlorine dioxide gas treatments for the inactivation of Salmonella enterica spp. inoculated onto roma tomatoes. Food Microbiology, 27, 1009–1015.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Valero, D., Diaz-Mula, H. M., Zapata, P. J., Guillen, F., Martinez-Romero, D., Castillo, S., et al. (2013). Effects of alginate edible coating on preserving fruit quality in four plum cultivars during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 77(1), 1–6.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vandendriessche, T., Nicolai, B. M., & Hertog, M. (2013). Optimization of HS SPME Fast GC-MS for High-throughput analysis of strawberry aroma. Food Analytical Methods, 6(2), 512–520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Velickova, E., Winkelhausen, E., Kuzmanova, S., Alves, V. D., & Moldão-Martins, M. (2013). Impact of chitosan-beeswax edible coatings on the quality of fresh strawberries (Fragaria ananassa cv Camarosa) under commercial storage conditions. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 52(1), 80–92.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Viallon, C., Berdague, J. L., Montel, M. C., Talon, R., Martin, J. F., Kondjoyan, N., et al. (1996). The effect of stage of ripening and packaging on volatile content and flavour of dry sausage. Food Research International, 29(7), 667–674.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, F. M., Li, H. M., Li, F., Xin, Z. H., Zhao, L. Y., Zheng, Y. H., et al. (2010). Effect of nano-packing on preservation quality of fresh strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv Fengxiang) during storage at 4 °C. Journal of Food Science, 75(3), C236–C240.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank the Jilin University Joint PhD Scholarships and Worrell Water Technologies for their support.

Conflict of Interest

Mention of a trademark or proprietary product is for identification only and does not imply a guarantee or warranty of the product by the US Department of Agriculture. The US Department of Agriculture prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jinhe Bai.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, Z., Narciso, J., Biotteau, A. et al. Improving Storability of Fresh Strawberries with Controlled Release Chlorine Dioxide in Perforated Clamshell Packaging. Food Bioprocess Technol 7, 3516–3524 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-014-1364-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-014-1364-0

Keywords

  • Strawberry fruit
  • Chlorine dioxide
  • Stomata
  • Weight loss
  • Softening
  • Decay
  • Storage