Osmotic Dehydration of Pineapple with Impregnation of Sucrose, Calcium, and Ascorbic Acid

Abstract

Mass transfer was evaluated during osmotic dehydration of pineapple in solutions with until four components aiming to investigate the solutes concentration influence on impregnation. In the first step, the experimental trials for optimization of solution concentration were based on 23 factorial design. In the second step, effective diffusion coefficients were determined. Equations representing the influence of the concentration of sucrose, calcium lactate, and ascorbic acid in osmotic solutions on water loss and gains of sucrose, calcium, and vitamin C were found. Results showed that both calcium lactate and sucrose concentration affected calcium and sucrose gain. On the other hand, only vitamin C gain was significantly affected by the ascorbic acid concentration in the studied concentration range. However, when comparing diffusivities in pineapple immersed in sucrose solutions, with and without calcium lactate, with and without ascorbic acid, it was possible to verify that diffusivities of water, sugar, and calcium increased in presence of ascorbic acid in solution. Calcium in solution diminished the water and sucrose diffusivities. High calcium and vitamin C contents were obtained in 1 h immersion in the solutions studied.

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Abbreviations

M :

mass (kg)

M 0 :

initial mass (kg)

ΔM:

total mass variation in relation to initial mass (dimensionless)

R2 :

determination coefficient (dimensionless)

ΔG SUC :

sugar gain in relation to initial mass (dimensionless)

ΔG Ca :

calcium gain in relation to initial mass (dimensionless)

ΔG VitC :

Ascorbic acid gain in relation to initial mass (dimensionless)

ΔW :

water loss in relation to initial mass (dimensionless)

β 0 β 1 β 2, β 3, β 12, β 13, β 23, β 123 :

estimated regression coefficient of the Eq. (1)

w w :

water content

w SUC :

sucrose content

w Ca :

calcium content

w VitC :

ascorbic acid content

\( \overline{{{w_i}}}(t) \) :

mean concentration of the component for a time (t)

ADM (SUC) :

dimensionless sucrose content

ADM (Ca ):

dimensionless calcium content

ADM (VitC) :

dimensionless vitamin C content

ADM (w) :

dimensionless water content

SUC :

sucrose concentration (%)

LAC :

calcium lactate concentration (%)

VitC :

Ascorbic acid concentration (%)

Coded variables:

x 1i ; x 2i ; x 3i ; (1 = SUC, 2 = LAC, 3 = VitC)

Response variables:

Y i (Y 1 = water loss (ΔW); Y 2 sucrose gain (ΔG SUC ); Y 3 calcium gain (ΔG Ca ); Y 4 Ascorbic acid gain (ΔG VitC ));

Calc :

calculated

exp:

experimental

OD:

osmotically dehydrated

S :

sucrose

Ca :

calcium

VitC :

ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

w :

water

0:

initial state

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank CAPES for the scholarship, PURAC Synthesis (Brazil) and Prozyn (Brazil).

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Correspondence to Keila S. Silva.

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Silva, K.S., Fernandes, M.A. & Mauro, M.A. Osmotic Dehydration of Pineapple with Impregnation of Sucrose, Calcium, and Ascorbic Acid. Food Bioprocess Technol 7, 385–397 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-013-1049-0

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Keywords

  • Osmotic dehydration
  • Calcium
  • Ascorbic acid
  • Pineapple
  • Sucrose gain
  • Impregnation