Changes in pistachio nuts induced by roasting and salting processes, evaluated by both sensory and instrumental analyses are reported, looking for a match in both methods. Dried (DP), roasted (RP), and salted–roasted pistachios (SRP) were studied, including four groups of sensory attributes, six basic chemical parameters, complemented by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and breaking force. Multivariate statistics helped with data interpretation, enabling correlations between two groups of variables. Key results show that the perception of roasting is associated with increased amounts of α-pinene and 3-carene in RP and SRP, while DP are associated with higher amounts of limonene, moisture, and bitterness. Sensory and puncture test measurements (texturometer) showed opposite results, which could be explained considering the loss of plasticity in RP and SRP. Current results present a novel approach for the evaluation of changes in the perception of pistachio quality by consumers, supported by both sensory and instrumental analyses using multivariate statistics for data evaluation.
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The authors thank FONCyT (PICT 2008–0554), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET) for grants, fellows, and salaries.
María C. Penci, Marcela L. Martinez and María P. Fabani had equal participation in this work.
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Penci, M.C., Martinez, M.L., Fabani, M.P. et al. Matching Changes in Sensory Evaluation with Physical and Chemical Parameters. Food Bioprocess Technol 6, 3305–3316 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0993-4
- Pistachio nut
- Sensory analysis
- Volatile compounds
- Multivariate statistics