Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 6, Issue 10, pp 2666–2674 | Cite as

Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins from Black Currant Marc

  • Nora Pap
  • Sándor Beszédes
  • Eva Pongrácz
  • Liisa Myllykoski
  • Miklòsnè Gábor
  • Ernő Gyimes
  • Cecília Hodúr
  • Riitta L. Keiski
Original Paper


This paper reports on the process optimization study of anthocyanin extraction from black currant marc by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) using acidic solvents. Maximum yields of anthocyanins were achieved at pH 2 with an extraction time of 10 min with a microwave power of 700 W. The anthocyanin yields in MAE were compared with those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CE) using citric or hydrochloric acids, and citric acid and water with a sulfur concentration of 50 ppm. A significant reduction of extraction time was achieved using MAE; maximum anthocyanin yield was obtained after 10 min using MAE, while using CE only after 300 min. Furthermore, the amount of solvent used halved; the mass ratio of marc to solvent was 1:40 in CE and 1:20 in MAE. Additionally, the final anthocyanin concentration in the solvent phase of MAE increased by 20 % compared to the conventional extraction with hydrochloric acid at pH 2 and temperature of 80 °C. The results suggest that microwave-assisted extraction is a more efficient technique for the extraction of valuable compounds from black currant residue.


Black currant marc Anthocyanin Extraction Microwave-assisted extraction Anthocyanin composition 



This study was carried out at the Un\iversity of Oulu with the financial support from the Graduate School in Chemical Engineering. The Thule Institute, the Tauno Tönning Foundation the Finnish Food Research Foundation (Elintarvikkeiden Tutkimussäätiö), the Olvi Foundation, and the Finnish Cultural Foundation are also gratefully acknowledged for their financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nora Pap
    • 1
    • 5
  • Sándor Beszédes
    • 2
  • Eva Pongrácz
    • 3
  • Liisa Myllykoski
    • 1
  • Miklòsnè Gábor
    • 4
  • Ernő Gyimes
    • 4
  • Cecília Hodúr
    • 2
  • Riitta L. Keiski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, Mass and Heat Transfer Process LaboratoryUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  2. 2.Department of Process EngineeringUniversity of Szeged, Faculty of EngineeringSzegedHungary
  3. 3.Thule Institute, NorTech OuluUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  4. 4.Department of Food EngineeringUniversity of Szeged, Faculty of EngineeringSzegedHungary
  5. 5.Biotechnology and Food ResearchMTT Agrifood Research FinlandJokioinenFinland

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