The microbial, physical, sensory and nutritional quality of boiled (vacuum and conventional), steamed, pressure cooked, sous vide, microwaved (sous vide and conventional), deep-fried (vacuum and conventional) and grilled kailan-hybrid broccoli (Bimi®) after cooking was studied. Sous vide microwaving greatly decreased microbial counts, achieving very low psychrophilic and enterobacteria counts (1.1 and 0.2 log CFU g−1, respectively). Vacuum boiling and sous vide reduced the stem broccoli firmness by approximately 54–58 %, reaching a pleasant and moderate softening. Sous vide, grilling and steaming induced the lowest stem colour changes. Generally, all cooking treatments showed a good overall sensory quality. The total phenolic content (1,148 mg CAE kg−1 fw) usually increased after cooking, with microwave and grilled treatments registering the highest increases up to 2-fold. Commonly, the total antioxidant capacity (296.6 mg AAE kg−1 fw) increased after cooking by sous vide, microwaving and frying treatments registering the highest increments, by approximately 3.6-fold. Generally, the cooking process reduced the initial vitamin C content, with vacuum and conventional boiling showing the lowest and highest losses with 27 and 62 %, respectively, while vacuum deep frying preserved the initial value (1,737 mg kg−1 fw). As a main conclusion, the studied grilling and vacuum-based cooking treatments resulted in better microbial quality, colour, stem firmness and sensory quality than the remaining ones. This maintained or even improved the total antioxidant content of the new kailan-hybrid broccoli studied.
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The authors are grateful to Sakata Seeds Ibérica S.L.U. for providing financial support and to Fundación Séneca de la Region de Murcia for a grant to G.B. Martínez-Hernández. Thanks are also due to Centro Tecnológico Nacional de la Conserva y la Alimentación and to Centro de Cualificación Turística for their technical support and use of equipments.
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Martínez-Hernández, G.B., Artés-Hernández, F., Colares-Souza, F. et al. Innovative Cooking Techniques for Improving the Overall Quality of a Kailan-Hybrid Broccoli. Food Bioprocess Technol 6, 2135–2149 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0871-0
- Brassica oleracea Italica group × Alboglabra group
- Stem firmness
- Health-promoting compounds