Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 6, Issue 7, pp 1644–1654

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, and Sensory Quality of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Arils and Rind as Affected by Drying Method

  • Ángel Calín-Sánchez
  • Adam Figiel
  • Francisca Hernández
  • Pablo Melgarejo
  • Krzysztof Lech
  • Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
Original Paper


The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of: (1) freeze drying, (2) convective drying (50, 60, or 70 °C), (3) vacuum–microwave drying (240, 360, or 480 W), and (4) a combined method of convective pre-drying and vacuum–microwave finish drying in the processing of pomegranate arils and rind. The quality parameters under study included sugars and organic acids, punicalagins and ellagic acid, total polyphenols, total antioxidant activity, and sensory quality. In general, drying led to a reduction in all studied parameters; however, the behavior of arils and rind was different. Vacuum–microwave drying at 240 or 360 W was the best drying treatment for arils, while rind required freeze drying or soft conditions of convective drying (50 °C). Further research is needed to obtain proper results with convective pre-drying and vacuum–microwave finish drying of arils and rind. With proper selection of the drying protocol, high-quality dried arils will be available for consumers; these arils will be characterized by high contents of fructose (25 g 100 g−1), phytic acid (2.2 g 100 g−1), punicalagins (0.57 mg g−1), total polyphenols (1.6 mg eq gallic acid g−1), high antioxidant capacity (0.6 mg eq Trolox g−1), and high intensities of garnet color, sweetness, sourness, and fresh pomegranate aroma. Besides, dried rind with very high contents of active compounds (123 mg g−1 of punicalagins and 108 mg eq gallic acid g−1) and high antioxidant capacity (26 mg eq Trolox g−1) will be also available as functional material.


Antioxidant capacity Descriptive sensory analysis Drying kinetics Organic acids Polyphenols Punicalagins 



Dry basis


Bulk density (kilograms per cubic meter)


Wet basis


Mass (kilograms)


Initial moisture content (kilograms per kilogram dry basis)


Bulk volume (cubic meters)


Analysis of variance


Antioxidant capacity


Convective drying


Convective pre-drying


Descriptive sensory analysis


Dry weight


Ellagic acid


Freeze drying


High-performance liquid chromatography






Total polyphenols


Vacuum–microwave drying


Vacuum–microwave finish drying


Volume of woody portion


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ángel Calín-Sánchez
    • 1
  • Adam Figiel
    • 2
  • Francisca Hernández
    • 3
  • Pablo Melgarejo
    • 3
  • Krzysztof Lech
    • 2
  • Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Grupo Calidad y Seguridad AlimentariaUniversidad Miguel HernándezOrihuelaSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Agricultural EngineeringWrocław University of Environmental and Life SciencesWrocławPoland
  3. 3.Departamento de Producción Vegetal y Microbiología. Grupo de Fruticultura y Técnicas de ProducciónUniversidad Miguel HernándezOrihuelaSpain

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