Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 385–390 | Cite as

Effect of Iron Fortification on Physical and Sensory Quality of Gluten-Free Bread

  • Alexandra Kiskini
  • Maria Kapsokefalou
  • Stavrianos Yanniotis
  • Ioanna MandalaEmail author


The scope of the present study was to investigate the effects of different iron compounds on the physical and sensory characteristics of gluten-free breads (GFBs) that were iron fortified (40 mg/kg solid compound) using different iron compounds. Differences among unfortified and fortified samples were observed in colour, crust firmness, and in the following sensory attributes: pore number, smell of ‘moisture’, metallic taste and stickiness. Elemental iron was more stable and thus adverse changes to product by its addition were not noticed. The results are useful in understanding the limitations of iron fortification and thus help designing more acceptable iron-fortified GFBs.


Gluten-free Iron Bread Fortification Amaranth Physical Sensory characteristics 



The authors would like to thank the producers of gluten-free flour mix, amaranth flour, vegetable fat powder, enzyme preparation, emulsifier and iron compounds mentioned in the “Materials and Methods” section for donating samples.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra Kiskini
    • 1
  • Maria Kapsokefalou
    • 2
  • Stavrianos Yanniotis
    • 1
  • Ioanna Mandala
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Engineering, Processing and Preservation of Foods, Department of Food Science and TechnologyAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Department of Food Science and TechnologyAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece

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