Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is the second largest traded commodity after petroleum. Due to the great demand of this product, large amounts of residues are generated in the coffee industry, which are toxic and represent serious environmental problems. Coffee silverskin and spent coffee grounds are the main coffee industry residues, obtained during the beans roasting, and the process to prepare “instant coffee”, respectively. Recently, some attempts have been made to use these residues for energy or value-added compounds production, as strategies to reduce their toxicity levels, while adding value to them. The present article provides an overview regarding coffee and its main industrial residues. In a first part, the composition of beans and their processing, as well as data about the coffee world production and exportation, are presented. In the sequence, the characteristics, chemical composition, and application of the main coffee industry residues are reviewed. Based on these data, it was concluded that coffee may be considered as one of the most valuable primary products in world trade, crucial to the economies and politics of many developing countries since its cultivation, processing, trading, transportation, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. As a consequence of this big market, the reuse of the main coffee industry residues is of large importance from environmental and economical viewpoints.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
ABIC (2009). World exportation of coffee. Available at: http://www.abic.com.br/estat_exporta_ppaises.html. Accessed 05 March 2010.
ABNT—Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (1987), Resíduos Sólidos—Classificação—NBR 10.004. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Andueza, S., Maeztu, L., Dean, B., de Peña, M. P., Bello, J., & Cid, C. (2002). Influence of water pressure on the final quality of arabica espresso coffee. Application of multivariate analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 7426–7431.
Andueza, S., Maeztu, L., Pascual, L., Ibanez, C., de Peña, M. P., & Cid, C. (2003). Influence of extraction temperature on the final quality of espresso coffee. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83, 240–248.
Andueza, S., Vila, M. A., Peña, M. P., & Cid, C. (2007). Influence of coffee/water ratio on the final quality of espresso coffee. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87, 586–592.
Arya, M., & Rao, J. M. (2007). An impression of coffee carbohydrates. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 47, 51–67.
Baggenstoss, J., Poisson, L., Luethi, R., Perren, R., & Escher, F. (2007). Influence of water quench cooling on degassing and aroma stability of roasted coffee. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 55, 6685–6691.
Belitz, H.-D., Grosch, W., & Schieberle, P. (2009). Coffee, tea, cocoa. In H.-D. Belitz, W. Grosch, & P. Schieberle (Eds.), Food Chemistry (4th ed., pp. 938–951). Leipzig: Springer.
Bell, L. N., Wetzel, C. R., & Grand, A. N. (1996). Caffeine content in coffee as influenced by grinding and brewing techniques. Food Research International, 29, 185–189.
Borrelli, R. C., Esposito, F., Napolitano, A., Ritieni, A., & Fogliano, V. (2004). Characterization of a new potential functional ingredient: coffee silverskin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 1338–1343.
Carneiro, L.M., Silva, J.P.A., Mussatto, S.I., Roberto, I.C., & Teixeira, J.A. (2009). Determination of total carbohydrates content in coffee industry residues. In: 8th International Meeting of the Portuguese Carbohydrate Group, GLUPOR, pp 94, 6–10 September 2009, Braga, Portugal (Book of abstracts).
Claude, B. (1979). Étude bibliographique: utilisation dês sous-produits du café. Café Cacao Thé, 23, 146–152.
Comité Français du Café. (1997). Café—a la découverte du café. Paris: Adexquation Publicite.
Couto, R. M., Fernandes, J., Gomes da Silva, M. D. R., & Simões, P. C. (2009). Supercritical fluid extraction of lipids from spent coffee grounds. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 51, 159–166.
Cruz, G. M. (1983). Resíduos de cultura e indústria. Informe Agropecuário, 9, 32–37.
Cunha, M. R. (1992). Apêndice estatístico. In E. L. Bacha & R. Greenhill (Eds.), 150 anos de café (pp. 286–388). Rio de Janeiro: Marcellino Martins & E. Johnston.
Czerny, M., & Grosch, W. (2000). Potent odorants of raw Arabica coffee. Their changes during roasting. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 868–872.
Czerny, M., Mayer, F., & Grosch, W. (1999). Sensory study on the character impact odorants of roasted arabica coffee. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 695–699.
Daglia, M., Papetti, A., Gregotti, C., Berté, F., & Gazzani, G. (2000). In vitro antioxidant and ex vivo protective activities of green and roasted coffee. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 48, 1449–1454.
Dutra, E. R., Oliveira, L. S., Franca, A. S., Ferraz, V. P., & Afonso, R. J. C. (2001). A preliminary study on the feasibility of using the composition of coffee roasting exhaust gas for the determination of the degree of roast. Journal of Food Engineering, 47, 241–246.
EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Available at: http://www.epa.gov/chief/ap42/ch09/final/c9s13-2.pdf. Accessed 13 May 2010.
Etienne, H. (2005). Somatic embryogenesis protocol: coffee (Coffea arabica L. and C. canephora P.). In S. M. Jain & P. K. Gupta (Eds.), Protocol for somatic embryogenesis in woody plant (pp. 167–168). Dordrecht: Springer.
Feria-Morales, A. M. (2002). Examining the case of green coffee to illustrate the limitations of grading systems/expert tasters in sensory evaluation for quality control. Food Quality and Preference, 13, 355–367.
Franca, A. S., Mendonça, J. C. F., & Oliveira, S. D. (2005). Composition of green and roasted coffees of different cup qualities. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 38, 709–715.
Franca, A. S., Oliveira, L. S., Oliveira, R. C. S., Agresti, P. C. M., & Augusti, R. (2009a). A preliminary evaluation of the effect of processing temperature on coffee roasting degree assessment. Journal of Food Engineering, 92, 345–352.
Franca, A. S., Oliveira, L. S., & Ferreira, M. E. (2009b). Kinetics and equilibrium studies of methylene blue adsorption by spent coffee grounds. Desalination, 249, 267–272.
Franková, A., Drábek, O., Havlík, J., Száková, J., & Vanek, A. (2009). The effect of beverage preparation method on aluminium content in coffee infusions. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 103, 1480–1485.
Freitas, S.P., Monteiro, P.L. & Lago, R.C.A. (2000). Extração do óleo da borra de café solúvel com etanol comercial. In: I Simpósio de Pesquisa dos Cafés do Brasil, pp 740–743, 26–29 September 2000, Poços de Caldas/MG, Brazil (Book of expanded abstracts).
Fujioka, K., & Shibamoto, T. (2008). Chlorogenic acid and caffeine contents in various commercial brewed coffees. Food Chemistry, 106, 217–221.
Ghoreishi, S. M., & Shahrestani, R. G. (2009). Innovative strategies for engineering mannitol production. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 20, 263–270.
Ginz, M., Balzer, H. H., Bradbury, A. G. W., & Maier, H. (2000). Formation of aliphatic acids by carbohydrate degradation during roasting of coffee. European Food Research and Technology, 211, 404–410.
Givens, D. I., & Barber, W. P. (1986). In vivo evaluation of spent coffee grounds as a ruminant feed. Agricultural Wastes, 18, 69–72.
Gonzalez-Rios, O., Suarez-Quiroza, M. L., Boulanger, R., Barel, M., Guyot, B., Guiraud, J.-P., et al. (2007a). Impact of “ecological” post-harvest processing on coffee aroma: I. Green coffee. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20, 289–296.
Gonzalez-Rios, O., Suarez-Quiroza, M. L., Boulanger, R., Barel, M., Guyot, B., Guiraud, J.-P., et al. (2007b). Impact of “ecological” post-harvest processing on coffee aroma: II. Roasted coffee. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20, 297–307.
Grembecka, M., Malinowska, E., & Szefer, P. (2007). Differentiation of market coffee and its infusions in view of their mineral composition. Science of the Total Environment, 383, 59–69.
Hernández, J. A., Heyd, B., & Trystram, G. (2008). On-line assessment of brightness and surface kinetics during coffee roasting. Journal of Food Engineering, 87, 314–322.
Huang, R., Qi, W., Su, R., & He, Z. (2010). Integrating enzymatic and acid catalysis to convert glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Chemical Communications, 46, 1115–1117.
ICO, International Coffee Organization (2010). Available at: http://www.ico.org/. Accessed 05 March 2010.
Jorgensen, H., Sanadi, A. R., Felby, C., Lange, N. E. K., Fischer, M., & Ernst, S. (2010). Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 161, 318–332.
Kondamudi, N., Mohapatra, S. K., & Misra, M. (2008). Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 11757–11760.
Kumazawa, K., & Masuda, H. (2003). Investigation of the change in the flavor of a coffee drink during heat processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 2674–2678.
Lago, R.C.A. & Antoniassi, R. (2001). Composição centesimal e de aminoácidos em cafés. In: II Simpósio de Pesquisa dos Cafés do Brasil. Available at: http://www.coffeebreak.com.br/ocafezal.asp?SE=8&ID=373. Accessed 02 December 2008.
Leifa, F., Pandey, A., & Soccol, C. R. (2001). Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 44, 205–212.
Lima, D. R. (2003). Café e Saúde: Manual de Farmacologia Clínica, Terapeutica e Toxicologia. Rio de Janeiro: Medsi Editora.
Machado, E.S.M. (2009). Reaproveitamento de resíduos da indústria do café como matéria-prima para a produção de etanol. MSc thesis, Department of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
Mesa, L., González, E., Cara, C., Ruiz, E., Castro, E., & Mussatto, S. I. (2010). An approach to optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis from sugarcane bagasse based on organosolv pretreatment. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 85, 1092–1098.
Miranda, M. Z., Grossmann, M. V. E., & Nabeshima, E. H. (1994). Utilization of brewers’ spent grain for the production of snacks with fiber. 1. Physicochemical characteristics. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 37, 483–493.
Murthy, P.S. & Naidu, M.M. (2010a). Production and application of xylanase from Penicillium sp. Utilizing coffee by-products. Food Bioprocess Technology, doi:10.1007/s11947-010-0331-7.
Murthy, P.S. & Naidu, M.M. (2010b). Recovery of phenolic antioxidants and functional compounds from coffee industry by-products. Food and Bioprocess Technology, doi:10.1007/s11947-010-0363-z.
Murthy, P. S., Naidu, M. M., & Srinivas, P. (2009). Production of α-amylase under solid-state fermentation utilizing coffee waste. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 84, 1246–1249.
Mussatto, S. I., & Roberto, I. C. (2004). Alternatives for detoxification of diluted acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzates for use in fermentative processes: a review. Bioresource Technology, 93, 1–10.
Mussatto, S. I., & Roberto, I. C. (2005). Acid hydrolysis and fermentation of brewer’s spent grain to produce xylitol. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 2453–2460.
Mussatto, S. I., & Teixeira, J. A. (2010). Increase in the fructooligosaccharides yield and productivity by solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus japonicus using agro-industrial residues as support and nutrient source. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 53, 154–157.
Mussatto, S. I., Dragone, G., & Roberto, I. C. (2006). Brewer’s spent grain: generation, characteristics and potential applications. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 1–14.
Mussatto, S. I., Dragone, G., Fernandes, M., Milagres, A. M. F., & Roberto, I. C. (2008a). The effect of agitation speed, enzyme loading and substrate concentration on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose from brewer’s spent grain. Cellulose, 15, 711–721.
Mussatto, S. I., Fernandes, M., Mancilha, I. M., & Roberto, I. C. (2008b). Effects of medium supplementation and pH control on lactic acid production from brewer’s spent grain. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 40, 437–444.
Mussatto, S. I., Carneiro, L. M., Silva, J. P. A., Roberto, I. C., & Teixeira, J. A. (2011). A study on chemical constituents and sugars extraction from spent coffee grounds. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 368–374.
Nabais, J. M. V., Nunes, P., Carrott, P. J. M., Carrott, M. R., García, A. M., & Díez, M. A. D. (2008). Production of activated carbons from coffee endocarp by CO2 and steam activation. Fuel Processing Technology, 89, 262–268.
Navarini, L., & Rivetti, D. (2010). Water quality for Espresso coffee. Food Chemistry, 122, 424–428.
Navarini, L., Nobile, E., Pinto, F., Scheri, A., & Suggi-Liverani, F. (2009). Experimental investigation of steam pressure coffee extraction in a stove-top coffee maker. Applied Thermal Engineering, 29, 998–1004.
Neves, C. (1974). A estória do café (p. 52). Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Brasileiro do Café.
Oliveira, A. L., Cabral, F. A., Eberlin, M. N., & Cordello, H. M. A. B. (2009). Sensory evaluation of black instant coffee beverage with some volatile compounds present in aromatic oil from roasted coffee. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 29, 76–80.
Pan, C., Zhang, S., Fan, Y., & Hou, H. (2010). Bioconversion of corncob to hydrogen using anaerobic mixed microflora. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35, 2663–2669.
Pandey, A., Soccol, C. R., Nigam, P., Brand, D., Mohan, R., & Roussos, S. (2000). Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 6, 153–162.
Parras, P., Martínez-Tomé, M., Jiménez, A. M., & Murcia, M. A. (2007). Antioxidant capacity of coffees of several origins brewed following three different procedures. Food Chemistry, 102, 582–592.
Pérez-Martínez, M., Caemmerer, B., de Peña, M. P., Cid, C., & Kroh, L. W. (2010). Influence of brewing method and acidity regulators on the antioxidant capacity of coffee brews. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 2958–2965.
Petracco, M. (2001). Beverage preparation: brewing trends for the new millennium. In R. Clarke & O. Vitzthum (Eds.), Coffee: Recent Developments. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Pfluger, R. A. (1975). Soluble coffee processing. In C. L. Mantell (Ed.), Solid wastes: origin, collection, processing, and disposal. New York: Wiley.
Qureshi, N., & Ezeji, T. C. (2008). Butanol "a superior biofuel" production from agricultural residues (renewable biomass): recent progress in technology. Biofuel, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 2, 319–330.
Ramalakshmi, K., Rao, J. M., Takano-Ishikawa, Y., & Goto, M. (2009). Bioactivities of low-grade green coffee and spent coffee in different in vitro model systems. Food Chemistry, 115, 79–85.
Ratnayake, W. M. N., Hollywood, R., O’Grady, E., & Stavric, B. (1993). Lipid content and composition of coffee brews prepared by different methods. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 31, 263–269.
Rawel, H. M., & Kulling, S. E. (2007). Nutritional contribution of coffee, cacao and tea phenolics to human health. Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 2, 399–406.
Ren, N., Wang, A., Cao, G., Xu, J., & Gao, L. (2009). Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to hydrogen: potential and challenges. Biotechnology Advances, 27, 1051–1060.
Rinaldi, R., & Schüth, F. (2009). Acid hydrolysis of cellulose as the entry point into biorefinery schemes. ChemSusChem, 2, 1096–1107.
Sacchetti, G., Di Mattia, C., Pittia, P., & Mastrocola, D. (2009). Effect of roasting degree, equivalent thermal effect and coffee type on the radical scavenging activity of coffee brews and their phenolic fraction. Journal of Food Engineering, 90, 74–80.
Saenger, M., Hartge, E.-U., Werther, J., Ogada, T., & Siagi, Z. (2001). Combustion of coffee husks. Renewable Energy, 23, 103–121.
Saha, B. C., & Bothast, R. J. (1996). Production of L-arabitol from L-arabinose by Candida entomaea and Pichia guilliermondii. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 45, 299–306.
Sampaio, A.R.M. (2010). Desenvolvimento de tecnologias para produção de etanol a partir do hidrolisado da borra de café. MSc thesis, Department of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
Santos, E. J., & Oliveira, E. (2001). Determination of mineral nutrients and toxic elements in Brazilian soluble coffee by ICP-AES. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 14, 523–531.
Sendzikiene, E., Makareviciene, V., Janulis, P., & Kitrys, S. (2004). Kinetics of free fatty acids esterification with methanol in the production of biodiesel fuel. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 106, 831–836.
Shen, J., & Agblevor, F. A. (2010). Modeling semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ethanol production from cellulose. Biomass and Bioenergy, 34, 1098–1107.
Silva, M. A., Nebra, S. A., Machado Silva, M. J., & Sanchez, C. G. (1998). The use of biomass residues in the Brazilian soluble coffee industry. Biomass and Bioenergy, 14, 457–467.
Silva, J. P. A., Mussatto, S. I., & Roberto, I. C. (2010). The influence of initial xylose concentration, agitation, and aeration on ethanol production by Pichia stipitis from rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 162, 1306–1315.
Sobésa Café (2008). Available at: http://www.sobesa.com.br. Accessed 05 March 2010.
Taherzadeh, M. J., Adler, L., & Lidén, G. (2002). Strategies for enhancing fermentative production of glycerol—a review. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 31, 53–66.
Taunay, A.E. (1939). História do café no Brasil. No Brasil Imperial 1822–1872, tomo I, v. 5. Departamento Nacional do Café, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Tokimoto, T., Kawasaki, N., Nakamura, T., Akutagawa, J., & Tanada, S. (2005). Removal of lead ions in drinking water by coffee grounds as vegetable biomass. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 281, 56–61.
Townsley, P. M. (1979). Preparation of commercial products from brewer’s waste grain and trub. MBAA Technical Quarterly, 16, 130–134.
Trugo, L. (2003). Coffee. In B. Caballero, L. Trugo, & P. Finglas (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (2nd ed.). London: Academic.
Trugo, L. C., & Macrae, R. (1984). A study of the effect of roasting on the chlorogenic acid composition of coffee using HPLC. Food Chemistry, 15, 219–227.
Wang, S.-C., & Huffman, J. B. (1981). Botanochemicals: supplements to petrochemicals. Economic Botany, 35, 369–382.
Wang, D., Sakoda, A., & Suzuki, M. (2001). Biological efficiency and nutritional value of Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on spent beer grain. Bioresource Technology, 78, 293–300.
Zhuang, X. L., Zhang, H. X., Yang, J. Z., & Qi, H. Y. (2001). Preparation of levoglucosan by pyrolysis of cellulose and its citric acid fermentation. Bioresource Technology, 79, 63–66.
About this article
Cite this article
Mussatto, S.I., Machado, E.M.S., Martins, S. et al. Production, Composition, and Application of Coffee and Its Industrial Residues. Food Bioprocess Technol 4, 661 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-011-0565-z
- Spent grounds