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Effect of Extruded Wheat Germ on Dough Rheology and Bread Quality

Abstract

Wheat germ, a by-product of the milling industry, has interesting nutritional properties. However, it has limited use due to a high risk of rancidity, which could be reduced by using certain thermal treatments such as extrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate how wheat germ extrusion affects the changes induced by its addition to bread dough. For this purpose, different quantities of extruded or raw wheat germ (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 20 g/100 g flour) were added to bread dough. Rheological characteristics of the dough and final quality characteristics of the bread were analysed from both the physical and the sensory points of view. Wheat germ addition increased water absorption and development time but decreased stability after over-kneading, dough tenacity, extensibility, and dough alveographic strength. The addition of extruded wheat dough improved stability and decreased extensibility and strength. Bread made from dough with added wheat germ presented decreased volume, cohesiveness, and elasticity and increased firmness. However, extrusion increased the volume of breads with added wheat germ and improver and decreased firmness. All breads obtained positive acceptability scores in sensory analysis, although wheat germ addition (10 g/100 g flour) slightly decreased texture, appearance, and overall acceptability scores of breads. Germ extrusion therefore improves dough rheology and bread quality and constitutes a suitable treatment to stabilise wheat germ in bread dough.

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Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología Proyects (AGL2005-05192-C04-02/ALI), Spain. Authors are also grateful to Harinera Los Pisones for supplying raw materials.

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Correspondence to Manuel Gómez.

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Gómez, M., González, J. & Oliete, B. Effect of Extruded Wheat Germ on Dough Rheology and Bread Quality. Food Bioprocess Technol 5, 2409–2418 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-011-0519-5

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Keywords

  • Extrusion
  • Germ
  • Rheology
  • Alveograph
  • Bread
  • Dough