Near infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy techniques were evaluated to determine calcium content in powdered milk. A hybrid spectral variable selection algorithm combined with uninformation variable elimination (UVE) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) selected 11 NIR and 15 MIR variables from full 2,756 NIR and 3,727 MIR variables, respectively. Predicted results of least-squares support vector machine models for the samples in the prediction set show that the 15 MIR variables obtained much better results (0.930 for coefficient of determination (r 2), 3.703 for residual predictive deviation (RPD), 30.162 for root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) and 5.22% for relative errors of prediction (RSEP)) than 11 NIR variables did (0.636 for r 2, 1.587 for RPD, 78.815 for RMSEP, and 13.40% for RSEP). The overall results indicate that MIR spectroscopy could be applied as a precision and rapid method to determine calcium content in powdered milk. The good performance shows a potential application using UVE-SPA to select NIR and MIR effective variables.
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This study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31072247), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Y3100205), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Open Foundation of Zhejiang Key Lab of Exploitation and Preservation of Coastal Bioresource (J2010001).
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Wu, D., Nie, P., He, Y. et al. Determination of Calcium Content in Powdered Milk Using Near and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy with Variable Selection and Chemometrics. Food Bioprocess Technol 5, 1402–1410 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0492-4
- Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy
- Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy
- Powdered milk
- Uninformation variable elimination (UVE)
- Successive projections algorithm (SPA)