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Enhanced Oil Recovery by Pre-treatment of Mustard Seeds Using Crude Enzyme Extract Obtained from Mixed-Culture Solid-State Fermentation of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata) Waste and Wheat Bran

Abstract

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of kinnow (Citrus reticulata) waste supplemented with wheat bran was used for production of cellulase, protease and pectinase with individual and mixed cultures of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger. Mustard seeds were pre-treated with crude filtrate extract (CFE) obtained from A. niger and T. reesei independently, and combination of the two cultures, prior to solvent extraction. Mixed-culture fermentation resulted in higher enzyme activity for filter paper cellulase (FPU), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), β-glucosidase, and exoploygalacturonase (exo-PG) in comparison to fermentation with individual cultures. This study indicated that pre-treatment using crude enzyme obtained with mixed cultures enhanced the oil recovery by 11% as compared to control where no enzyme was used. Mustard seeds pre-treated with CFE obtained from mixed cultures having ratio of 2:1:1 for exo-polygalacturonase, FPU, and protease resulted in highest oil recovery. About 7–10% more oil was recovered when mustard seeds were pre-treated with CFE obtained from individual cultures, compared with control. Enzymatic pre-treatment also improved some of the quality attributes of mustard oil. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where mixed-culture SSF was attempted to produce enzyme consortium for pre-treatment of mustard seeds for enhanced oil recovery.

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Acknowledgments

Authors thankfully acknowledge the financial assistance received under AMAAS project from Indian Council of Agricultural Research for carrying out the enzyme production studies. Authors are also thankful to Dr. B.S. Chadha, Department of Microbiology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India for providing the A. niger strain. Author Praveen V Vadlani would like to thank the Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA for financial support.

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Correspondence to Harinder Singh Oberoi.

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Oberoi, H.S., Babbar, N., Dhaliwal, S.S. et al. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Pre-treatment of Mustard Seeds Using Crude Enzyme Extract Obtained from Mixed-Culture Solid-State Fermentation of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata) Waste and Wheat Bran. Food Bioprocess Technol 5, 759–767 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0380-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0380-y

Keywords

  • Crude enzyme extract
  • Solid-state fermentation
  • Mixed cultures
  • Enzymatic pre-treatment
  • Mustard seeds
  • Oil recovery