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Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE): Global Yields, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and Estimation of the Cost of Manufacturing

Abstract

In this work, supercritical technology was used to obtain extracts from Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) with CO2 and the cosolvent H2O at 1, 10, and 20% (w/w). The raw material was obtained from hydroponic cultivation. The extract’s global yield isotherms, chemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and cost of manufacturing were determined. The extraction assays were done for pressures of 10 to 30 MPa at 303 to 323 K. The identification of the compounds present in the extracts was made by GC-MS and ESI-MS. The antioxidant activity of extracts was determined using the coupled reaction of beta-carotene and linolenic acid. At 1% of cosolvent, the largest global yield was obtained at 10 MPa and 303 K (2%, dry basis—d.b.); at 10% of cosolvent the largest global yield was obtained at 10 and 15 MPa (11%, d.b.), and at 20% of cosolvent the largest global yield was detected at 30 MPa and 303 K (24%, d.b.). The main components identified in the extracts were eugenol, germacrene-d, epi–alpha–cadinol, malic acid, tartaric acid, ramnose, caffeic acid, quinic acid, kaempferol, caffeoylquinic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. Sweet basil extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity compared to beta-carotene. Three types of SFE extracts from sweet basil were produced, for which the estimated cost of manufacturing (class 5 type) varied from US$ 47.96 to US$ 1,049.58 per kilogram of dry extract.

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Acknowledgement

P. F. Leal thanks FAPESP for the MS and PhD assistantships (02/12001-7 and 04/09310-3). The authors thank Ms. P. Hirata from the Laboratory of Microwave of FEA–UNICAMP for the determination of the humidity by the infrared method. The authors are grateful to FAPESP (1999/01962-1) and CNPq 472512/2004-8 for the financial support.

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Correspondence to M. Angela A. Meireles.

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Leal, P.F., Maia, N.B., Carmello, Q.A.C. et al. Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE): Global Yields, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and Estimation of the Cost of Manufacturing. Food Bioprocess Technol 1, 326 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-007-0030-1

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Keywords

  • Antioxidant activity
  • Chemical composition
  • Cosolvent
  • Cost of manufacturing
  • Global yields
  • Ocimum basilicum
  • Supercritical fluid extraction
  • Volatile oil