Favaloro R. A revival of Paul Dudley White: an overview of present medical practice and of our society. Circulation. 1999;99(12):1525–37.
Currens JH, White PD. Half a century of running. clinical, physiologic and autopsy findings in the case of Clarence DeMar (“Mr. Marathon”). N Engl J Med. 1961 Nov 16;265:988–93.
Running USA. http://www.runningusaorg/statistics. Accessed November 5, 2016.
• Thompson PD, Myerburg RJ, Levine BD, Udelson JE, Kovacs RJ. Eligibility and disqualification recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities: task Force 8: coronary artery disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(21):2406–11. The 2015 ACC guidelines on the management of ASCVD in competitive athletes.
Borjesson M, Dellborg M, Niebauer J, LaGerche A, Schmied C, Solberg EE, et al. Recommendations for participation in leisure time or competitive sports in athletes-patients with coronary artery disease: a position statement from the Sports Cardiology Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC). Eur Heart J. 2019 Jan 1;40(1):13–8.
Marijon E, Tafflet M, Celermajer DS, Dumas F, Perier MC, Mustafic H, et al. Sports-related sudden death in the general population. Circulation. 2011 Aug 9;124(6):672–81.
Giri S, Thompson PD, Kiernan FJ, Clive J, Fram DB, Mitchel JF, et al. Clinical and angiographic characteristics of exertion-related acute myocardial infarction. Jama. 1999 Nov 10;282(18):1731–6.
Siscovick DS, Weiss NS, Fletcher RH, Lasky T. The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise. N Engl J Med. 1984;311(14):874–7.
Parker MW, Thompson PD. Assessment and management of atherosclerosis in the athletic patient. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;54(5):416–22.
Libby P. Mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes and their implications for therapy. N Engl J Med. 2013 May 23;368(21):2004–13.
Aikawa E, Nahrendorf M, Figueiredo JL, Swirski FK, Shtatland T, Kohler RH, et al. Osteogenesis associates with inflammation in early-stage atherosclerosis evaluated by molecular imaging in vivo. Circulation. 2007;116(24):2841–50.
Budoff MJ, Shaw LJ, Liu ST, Weinstein SR, Mosler TP, Tseng PH, et al. Long-term prognosis associated with coronary calcification: observations from a registry of 25,253 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49(18):1860–70.
Mohlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Breuckmann F, Brocker-Preuss M, Nassenstein K, Halle M, et al. Running: the risk of coronary events : prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(15):1903–10.
Schwartz RS, Merkel-Kraus S, Schwartz JG, Wickstrom KK, Peichel G, Garberich RF, et al. Increased coronary artery plaque volume among male marathon runners. Mo Med. 2014;111(2):85–90.
Aengevaeren VL, Mosterd A, Braber TL, Prakken NHJ, Doevendans PA, Grobbee DE, et al. Relationship between lifelong exercise volume and coronary atherosclerosis in athletes. Circulation. 2017 Jul 11;136(2):138–48.
• Merghani A, Maestrini V, Rosmini S, Cox AT, Dhutia H, Bastiaenan R, et al. Prevalence of subclinical coronary artery disease in masters endurance athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile. Circulation. 2017;136(2):126–37. In athletes with low-atherosclerotic risk, more athletes had CAC scores ≥ 300 (11% versus 0, P = 0.009). Male athletes also had more stenoses ≥ 50% (7.5% vs 0, P = 0.05) and plaques were more calcified. The predominantly calcific plaques in the athletes suggest a potentially different pathophysiological mechanisms for plaque formation in athletic versus sedentary men.
Gabriel KP, Matthews KA, Perez A, Edmundowicz D, Kohl HW 3rd, Hawkins MS, et al. Self-reported and accelerometer-derived physical activity levels and coronary artery calcification progression in older women: results from the healthy women study. Menopause. 2013 Feb;20(2):152–61.
Delaney JA, Jensky NE, Criqui MH, Whitt-Glover MC, Lima JA, Allison MA. The association between physical activity and both incident coronary artery calcification and ankle brachial index progression: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2013 Oct;230(2):278–83.
Otsuka F, Sakakura K, Yahagi K, Joner M, Virmani R. Has our understanding of calcification in human coronary atherosclerosis progressed? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34(4):724–36.
Kasapis C, Thompson PD. The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory markers: a systematic review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 May 17;45(10):1563–9.
Lin J, DeLuca JR, Lu MT, Ruehm SG, Dudum R, Choi B, et al. Extreme endurance exercise and progressive coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(2):293–5.
Williams PT, Thompson PD. Increased cardiovascular disease mortality associated with excessive exercise in heart attack survivors. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014 Sep;89(9):1187–94.
Garatachea N, Santos-Lozano A, Sanchis-Gomar F, Fiuza-Luces C, Pareja-Galeano H, Emanuele E, et al. Elite athletes live longer than the general population: a meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89(9):1195–200.
Radford NB, DeFina LF, Leonard D, Barlow CE, Willis BL, Gibbons LW, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness, coronary artery calcium, and cardiovascular disease events in a cohort of generally healthy middle-age men: results from the Cooper Center longitudinal study. Circulation. 2018 May 1;137(18):1888–95.
•• DeFina LF, Radford NB, Barlow CE, Willis BL, Leonard D, Haskell WL, et al. Association of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality with high levels of physical activity and concurrent coronary artery calcification. JAMA Cardiol. 2019. For any baseline age and CAC level, greater fitness was associated in a continuous fashion, with lower ASCVD events. Findings of this study supports the idea that high levels of physical activity are associated with prevalent CAC but this association does not seem to be linked to harm.
Dollemore D. Aging hearts & arteries, a scientific quest; chapter-4, Blood vessels and aging: the rest of the journey. A publication of National Institute on Aging and National Institutes of Health.
Maron BJ, Zipes DP, Kovacs RJ. Eligibility and disqualification recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities: preamble, principles, and general considerations: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Dec 01;66(21):2343–9.
Ballantyne CM, Raichlen JS, Nicholls SJ, Erbel R, Tardif JC, Brener SJ, et al. Effect of rosuvastatin therapy on coronary artery stenoses assessed by quantitative coronary angiography: a study to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on intravascular ultrasound-derived coronary atheroma burden. Circulation. 2008;117(19):2458–66.
Hacker M, Becker C. The incremental value of coronary artery calcium scores to myocardial single photon emission computer tomography in risk assessment. J Nucl Cardiol. 2011;18(4):700–11 quiz 12-6.
Greenland P, Alpert JS, Beller GA, Benjamin EJ, Budoff MJ, Fayad ZA, et al. 2010 ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(25):e50–103.
Berman DS, Wong ND, Gransar H, Miranda-Peats R, Dahlbeck J, Hayes SW, et al. Relationship between stress-induced myocardial ischemia and atherosclerosis measured by coronary calcium tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44(4):923–30.
Budoff MJ, Raggi P, Beller GA, Berman DS, Druz RS, Malik S, et al. Noninvasive cardiovascular risk assessment of the asymptomatic diabetic patient: the Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016;9(2):176–92.
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, Beam C, Birtcher KK, Blumenthal RS, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol. Circulation. 2018;10:CIR0000000000000625.
Manson JE, Allison MA, Carr JJ, Langer RD, Cochrane BB, Hendrix SL, et al. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and coronary artery calcification in the Women’s Health Initiative. Menopause. 2010;17(4):683–91.
Samelson EJ, Booth SL, Fox CS, Tucker KL, Wang TJ, Hoffmann U, et al. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(6):1274–80.
Noyes AM, Thompson PD. The effects of statins on exercise and physical activity. J Clin Lipidol. 2017;11(5):1134–44.
Zhao XQ, Dong L, Hatsukami T, Phan BA, Chu B, Moore A, et al. MR imaging of carotid plaque composition during lipid-lowering therapy a prospective assessment of effect and time course. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011;4(9):977–86.
Jellinger PS, Handelsman Y, Rosenblit PD, Bloomgarden ZT, Fonseca VA, Garber AJ, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Guidelines for management of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Endocr Pract. 2017;23(Suppl 2):1–87.
Juszczyk MA, Seip RL, Thompson PD. Decreasing LDL cholesterol and medication cost with every-other-day statin therapy. Prev Cardiol. 2005 Fall;8(4):197–9.
Gadarla M, Kearns AK, Thompson PD. Efficacy of rosuvastatin (5 mg and 10 mg) twice a week in patients intolerant to daily statins. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101(12):1747–8.
Thompson PD, Zmuda JM, Domalik LJ, Zimet RJ, Staggers J, Guyton JR. Lovastatin increases exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. Metabolism. 1997;46(10):1206–10.
Kastelein JJ, Akdim F, Stroes ES, Zwinderman AH, Bots ML, Stalenhoef AF, et al. Simvastatin with or without ezetimibe in familial hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(14):1431–43.
Giugliano RP, Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Nicolau JC, Corbalan R, Spinar J, et al. Benefit of adding ezetimibe to statin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes and safety in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus: results from IMPROVE-IT (improved reduction of outcomes: vytorin efficacy international trial). Circulation. 137(15):1571–82.
Nicholls SJ, Puri R, Anderson T, Ballantyne CM, Cho L, Kastelein JJ, et al. Effect of evolocumab on progression of coronary disease in statin-treated patients: the GLAGOV randomized clinical trial. Jama. 2016;316(22):2373–84.
Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, Honarpour N, Wiviott SD, Murphy SA, et al. Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2018;376(18):1713–22.