The Diagnosis and Treatment of Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An Update for Cardiologists
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Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an arteriopathy of unknown etiology which has traditionally been associated with secondary hypertension; however, it has garnered increased attention in the cardiology field in the recent years because of its potential association with spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Cardiologists should be aware that FMD is a polyvascular disease which can affect any arterial bed and can result in morbid conditions such as chronic headaches, pulsatile tinnitus, stroke from cervical artery dissection, and renal infarction from renal artery dissection and has also been associated with increased prevalence of arterial aneurysm, including brain aneurysm. For these reasons, some experts recommend panvascular imaging from head-to-pelvis upon diagnosis for screening purposes and targeted imaging surveillance after diagnosis. When necessary, endovascular intervention with angioplasty alone is the preferred modality, though there are still situations which require surgical intervention. Patients with FMD may benefit from a multispecialty team approach for optimal treatment.
KeywordsFibromuscular dysplasia Vascular disease
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Esther S. H. Kim is a consultant for Philips Ultrasound.
Maya Serhal declares no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as:••Of major importance
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