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Role of Probiotics for Recurrent UTIs in the Twenty-First Century: a Systematic Review of Literature

A Correction to this article was published on 13 July 2022

This article has been updated


Purpose of Review

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem, especially in women. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) are difficult to treat and while prophylactic antibiotics can be an effective strategy, they worsen antimicrobial resistance and incur side effects. We conducted a systematic review of literature to assess the role of probiotics in management of UTIs. All English language articles reporting on randomised trials and cohort studies were selected, while paediatric patients (< 18 years) and patients with neurogenic bladders were excluded.

Recent Findings

A total of 9 articles (772 patients) met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 34.2 years (range 18–65 years). A variety of different probiotics were used. Two studies concluded that probiotics could reduce risk of rUTIs; however, the remainder provided inconclusive results. A key advantage demonstrated, however, was the limited side effect profile and tolerance, which allows for good patient compliance with this treatment strategy.


There exists only limited clinical evidence to support the role of probiotics in the management of rUTIs, and based on the current evidence, probiotics can be a potential measure to reduce rUTIs, although further randomised studies will help delineate its formal position in the treatment algorithm.

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Fig. 1

Change history


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Authors and Affiliations



Francesca J New – project conception, data collection, manuscript writing. Shenthiuiyan Theivendrampillai – data collection, manuscript writing. Patrick Juliebø-Jones – manuscript editing, analysis. Bhaskar K Somani – project conception, manuscript editing.

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Correspondence to Bhaskar Somani.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms & Voiding Dysfunction

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New, F.J., Theivendrampillai, S., Juliebø-Jones, P. et al. Role of Probiotics for Recurrent UTIs in the Twenty-First Century: a Systematic Review of Literature. Curr Urol Rep 23, 19–28 (2022).

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  • Probiotics
  • Urinary tract infection
  • UTI
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Antibiotics
  • Recurrent