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Improving Gender Diversity in Urologic Residency Training


Purpose of Review

Women remain underrepresented in urology despite being well-represented in medicine overall. A more diverse urological workforce has the potential to lead to better health outcomes for patients. This paper presents an overview of barriers faced by women in urology at the student, resident, and attending level and potential solutions to mitigate these issues.

Recent Findings

Although the number of women entering urology has increased since the first woman became a board-certified urologist in 1962, women still are underrepresented, advance more slowly, and hold only a small percentage of leadership positions. Women in urology and surgical fields in general face numerous challenges and obstacles which can be improved to bring and keep more women in the field of urology. Recent efforts by both academic urologists and trainees themselves offer hope for change.


Women in urology face challenges in the field which include more limited mentorship opportunities, harassment and bias, and ‘pigeonholing’. Recent efforts by both academic urologists and trainees themselves offer hope for change to attract and keep more women in the field. These efforts include the American Urological Association's public commitment to advocating for and fostering a diverse and inclusive environment within urology. A more diverse urological workforce has the potential to lead to better health outcomes for patients, particularly in those populations where access to urological care may be limited.

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Stephanie Kielb was responsible for the review conception. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by Chideraa Ukeje, Ayman Elmasri, and Stephanie Kielb. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Chideraa Ukeje and Ayman Elmasri, and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Stephanie Kielb.

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Ukeje, C., Elmasri, A. & Kielb, S. Improving Gender Diversity in Urologic Residency Training. Curr Urol Rep 22, 60 (2021).

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  • Underrepresented
  • Women
  • Barriers
  • Limitations