Skip to main content

Are Beta 3 Adrenergic Agonists Now the Preferred Pharmacologic Management of Overactive Bladder?


Purpose of the Review

This paper discusses the recent evidence supporting beta 3 adrenergic agonists as the preferred pharmacological management of overactive bladder syndrome.

Recent Findings

Mirabegron has a similar efficacy profile to first-line antimuscarinics with favorable adverse effects profile. Treatment of OAB with beta-3 adrenergic agonist should be favored in patients at higher risk of anticholinergic adverse events. The efficacy and tolerability of beta-3 adrenergic agonists are consistently reported in older OAB patients, whether used alone or with other antimuscarinics. Mirabegron is cost-effective in treating OAB unless the symptoms were severe or refractory. Combination therapy of mirabegron and other pharmacotherapy has proven to be efficient in controlling OAB symptoms without inducing serious add-on adverse effects.


While beta-3 adrenergic agonists bear favorable advantages in OAB treatment, physicians should perform a thorough and careful pre-treatment planning to optimize treatment benefits and adherence.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, et al. The standardisation of terminology in lower urinary tract function: report from the standardisation sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Urology. 2003;61(1):37–49.

  2. Palmer CJ, Choi JM. Pathophysiology of overactive bladder: current understanding. Curr Bladder Dysfunct Rep. 2017;12(1):74–9.

  3. Eapen RS, Radomski SB. Review of the epidemiology of overactive bladder. Res Rep Urol. 2016;8:71.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Reeves P, Irwin D, Kelleher C, Milsom I, Kopp Z, Calvert N, et al. The current and future burden and cost of overactive bladder in five European countries. Eur Urol. 2006;50(5):1050–7.

  5. Stewart W, Van Rooyen J, Cundiff G, Abrams P, Herzog A, Corey R, et al. Prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in the United States. World J Urol. 2003;20(6):327–36.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Dmochowski RR, Newman DK. Impact of overactive bladder on women in the United States: results of a national survey. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23(1):65–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Benner JS, Nichol MB, Rovner ES, Jumadilova Z, Alvir J, Hussein M, et al. Patient-reported reasons for discontinuing overactive bladder medication. BJU Int. 2010;105(9):1276–82.

  8. Coupland CA, Hill T, Dening T, Morriss R, Moore M, Hippisley-Cox J. Anticholinergic drug exposure and the risk of dementia: a nested case-control study. JAMA Intern Med. 2019;179(8):1084–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Gray SL, Anderson ML, Dublin S, Hanlon JT, Hubbard R, Walker R, et al. Cumulative use of strong anticholinergics and incident dementia: a prospective cohort study. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(3):401–7.

  10. Richardson K, Fox C, Maidment I, Steel N, Loke YK, Arthur A, et al. Anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia: case-control study. Bmj. 2018;361:k1315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Gormley EA, Lightner DJ, Faraday M, Vasavada SP. Diagnosis and treatment of overactive bladder (non-neurogenic) in adults: AUA/SUFU guideline amendment. J Urol. 2015;193(5):1572–80.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. •• Lightner DJ, Gomelsky A, Souter L, Vasavada SP. Diagnosis and treatment of overactive bladder (non-neurogenic) in adults: AUA/SUFU guideline amendment 2019. J Urol. 2019;202(3):558–63. This reference contains updated guidelines about OAB management regarding the combination therapy or using mirabegron on naïve patients.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Nambiar AK, Bosch R, Cruz F, Lemack GE, Thiruchelvam N, Tubaro A, et al. EAU guidelines on assessment and nonsurgical management of urinary incontinence. Eur Urol. 2018;73(4):596–609.

  14. •• Corcos J, Przydacz M, Campeau L, Witten J, Hickling D, Honeine C, et al. CUA guideline on adult overactive bladder. Can Urol Assoc J. 2017;11(5):E142–E73. This reference describes in detail the scientific basis of each therapeutic option for OAB management with evidence evaluation.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Fowler CJ, Griffiths D, De Groat WC. The neural control of micturition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(6):453–66.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Abrams P, Andersson KE. Muscarinic receptor antagonists for overactive bladder. BJU Int. 2007;100(5):987–1006.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Abrams P, Andersson KE, Buccafusco JJ, Chapple C, De Groat WC, Fryer AD, et al. Muscarinic receptors: their distribution and function in body systems, and the implications for treating overactive bladder. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;148(5):565–78.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Takasu T, Ukai M, Sato S, Matsui T, Nagase I, Maruyama T, et al. Effect of (R)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-4′-{2-[(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl) amino] ethyl} acetanilide (YM178), a novel selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist, on bladder function. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;321(2):642–7.

  19. Petkov GV. Role of potassium ion channels in detrusor smooth muscle function and dysfunction. Nat Rev Urol. 2012;9(1):30.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Condino AM, Calvi P. Involvement of β3-adrenoceptors in the inhibitory control of cholinergic activity in human bladder: direct evidence by [3H]-acetylcholine release experiments in the isolated detrusor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;758:115–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Schena G, Caplan MJ. Everything you always wanted to know about β3-AR*(* but were afraid to ask). Cells. 2019;8(4):357.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Nitti V, Khullar V, Van Kerrebroeck P, Herschorn S, Cambronero J, Angulo J, et al. Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder: a prespecified pooled efficacy analysis and pooled safety analysis of three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III studies. Int J Clin Pract. 2013;67(7):619–32.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Chapple CR, Cardozo L, Nitti VW, Siddiqui E, Michel MC. Mirabegron in overactive bladder: a review of efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Neurourol Urodyn. 2014;33(1):17–30.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Maman K, Aballea S, Nazir J, Desroziers K, Neine M-E, Siddiqui E, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of medical treatments for the management of overactive bladder: a systematic literature review and mixed treatment comparison. Eur Urol. 2014;65(4):755–65.

  25. •• Kelleher C, Hakimi Z, Zur R, Siddiqui E, Maman K, Aballéa S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron compared with antimuscarinic monotherapy or combination therapies for overactive bladder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2018;74(3):324–33. This reference is a meta-analysis which opened the door to recommend combination pharmacotherapy for OAB.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. • Chapple CR, Cruz F, Cardozo L, Staskin D, Herschorn S, Choudhury N, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Mirabegron: Analysis of a Large Integrated Clinical Trial Database of Patients with Overactive Bladder Receiving Mirabegron, Antimuscarinics, or Placebo. Eur Urol. 2020;77(1):119–28. This reference provides the most recent meta-analysis to compare B3 agonists, anticholinergic and placebo with age and gender consideration in efficacy and tolerability.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Chen H-L, Chen T-C, Chang H-M, Juan Y-S, Huang W-H, Pan H-F, et al. Mirabegron is alternative to antimuscarinic agents for overactive bladder without higher risk in hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Urol. 2018;36(8):1285–97.

  28. Sebastianelli A, Russo GI, Kaplan SA, McVary KT, Moncada I, Gravas S, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron for the treatment of storage lower urinary tract symptoms/overactive bladder: comparison with placebo and tolterodine. Int J Urol. 2018;25(3):196–205.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Cui Y, Zong H, Yang C, Yan H, Zhang Y. The efficacy and safety of mirabegron in treating OAB: a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III trials. Int Urol Nephrol. 2014;46(1):275–84.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Chapple CR, Kaplan SA, Mitcheson D, Klecka J, Cummings J, Drogendijk T, et al. Randomized double-blind, active-controlled phase 3 study to assess 12-month safety and efficacy of mirabegron, a β3-adrenoceptor agonist, in overactive bladder. Eur Urol. 2013;63(2):296–305.

  31. • Foley S, Choudhury N, Huang M, Stari A, Nazir J, Freeman R. Quality of life in patients aged 65 years and older with overactive bladder treated with mirabegron across eight European countries: Secondary analysis of BELIEVE. Int J Urol. 2019;26(9):890–6. This reference emphasizes an important aspect of OAB management outcomes: patient perception and quality of life improvement.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Wagg A, Franks B, Ramos B, Berner T. Persistence and adherence with the new beta-3 receptor agonist, mirabegron, versus antimuscarinics in overactive bladder: early experience in Canada. Can Urol Assoc J. 2015;9(9–10):343–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Drake MJ, MacDiarmid S, Chapple CR, Esen A, Athanasiou S, Cambronero Santos J, et al. Cardiovascular safety in refractory incontinent patients with overactive bladder receiving add-on mirabegron therapy to solifenacin (BESIDE). Int J Clin Pract. 2017;71(5):e12944.

  34. Castro-Diaz D, Chapple C, Hakimi Z, Blauwet M, Delgado-Herrera L, Lau W, et al. The effect of mirabegron on patient-related outcomes in patients with overactive bladder: the results of post hoc correlation and responder analyses using pooled data from three randomized phase III trials. Qual Life Res. 2015;24(7):1719–27.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Abrams P, Kelleher C, Staskin D, Rechberger T, Kay R, Martina R, et al. Combination treatment with mirabegron and solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder: efficacy and safety results from a randomised, double-blind, dose-ranging, phase 2 study (Symphony). Eur Urol. 2015;67(3):577–88.

  36. Herschorn S, Chapple CR, Abrams P, Arlandis S, Mitcheson D, Lee KS, et al. Efficacy and safety of combinations of mirabegron and solifenacin compared with monotherapy and placebo in patients with overactive bladder (SYNERGY study). BJU Int. 2017;120(4):562–75.

  37. Gratzke C, van Maanen R, Chapple C, Abrams P, Herschorn S, Robinson D, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of mirabegron and solifenacin in combination compared with monotherapy in patients with overactive bladder: a randomised, multicentre phase 3 study (SYNERGY II). Eur Urol. 2018;74(4):501–9.

  38. Drake MJ, Chapple C, Esen AA, Athanasiou S, Cambronero J, Mitcheson D, et al. Efficacy and safety of mirabegron add-on therapy to solifenacin in incontinent overactive bladder patients with an inadequate response to initial 4-week solifenacin monotherapy: a randomised double-blind multicentre phase 3B study (BESIDE). Eur Urol. 2016;70(1):136–45.

  39. Robinson D, Kelleher C, Staskin D, Mueller ER, Falconer C, Wang J, et al. Patient-reported outcomes from SYNERGY, a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study evaluating combinations of mirabegron and solifenacin compared with monotherapy and placebo in OAB patients. Neurourol Urodyn. 2018;37(1):394–406.

  40. Herdman M, Nazir J, Hakimi Z, Siddiqui E, Huang M, Pavesi M, et al. Assessing preference-based outcome measures for overactive bladder: an evaluation of patient-reported outcome data from the BESIDE clinical trial. Patient. 2017;10(6):677–86.

  41. Su S, Lin J, Liang L, Liu L, Chen Z, Gao Y. The efficacy and safety of mirabegron on overactive bladder induced by benign prostatic hyperplasia in men receiving tamsulosin therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine. 2020;99(4):e18802.

  42. Tretter R, Meijer J, Dorrepaal C, Gangaram-Panday S, Brooks A, Krauwinkel W, et al. Absence of clinically relevant cardiovascular interaction upon add-on of mirabegron or tamsulosin to an established tamsulosin or mirabegron treatment in healthy middle-aged to elderly men. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014;52(8):693–701.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Corbin J. Mechanisms of action of PDE5 inhibition in erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2004;16(1):S4–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Köhler TS, McVary KT. The relationship between erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms and the role of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Eur Urol. 2009;55(1):38–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Yokoyama O, Yoshida M, Kim SC, Wang CJ, Imaoka T, Morisaki Y, et al. Tadalafil once daily for lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized placebo-and tamsulosin-controlled 12-week study in Asian men. Int J Urol. 2013;20(2):193–201.

  46. Gacci M, Andersson K-E, Chapple C, Maggi M, Mirone V, Oelke M, et al. Latest evidence on the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol. 2016;70(1):124–33.

  47. Yamanishi T, Kaga K, Sakata K, Yokoyama T, Kageyama S, Fuse M, et al. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of tadalafil monotherapy versus combination of tadalafil and mirabegron for the treatment of persistent overactive bladder symptoms in men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (CONTACT Study). Neurourol Urodyn. 2020;39(2):804–12.

  48. Nitti VW, Rosenberg S, Mitcheson DH, He W, Fakhoury A, Martin NE. Urodynamics and safety of the β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron in males with lower urinary tract symptoms and bladder outlet obstruction. J Urol. 2013;190(4):1320–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Shin DG, Kim HW, Yoon SJ, Song SH, Kim YH, Lee YG, et al. Mirabegron as a treatment for overactive bladder symptoms in men (MIRACLE study): efficacy and safety results from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison phase IV study. Neurourol Urodyn. 2019;38(1):295–304.

  50. Rolland Y, Morley JE. Frailty and polypharmacy. J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20:645–6.

  51. Wagg A, Cardozo L, Nitti VW, Castro-Diaz D, Auerbach S, Blauwet MB, et al. The efficacy and tolerability of the β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder in older patients. Age Ageing. 2014;43(5):666–75.

  52. Gibson W, MacDiarmid S, Huang M, Siddiqui E, Stölzel M, Choudhury N, et al. Treating overactive bladder in older patients with a combination of mirabegron and solifenacin: a prespecified analysis from the BESIDE study. Eur Urol Focus. 2017;3(6):629–38.

  53. Mueller ER, van Maanen R, Chapple C, Abrams P, Herschorn S, Robinson D, et al. Long-term treatment of older patients with overactive bladder using a combination of mirabegron and solifenacin: a prespecified analysis from the randomized, phase III SYNERGY II study. Neurourol Urodyn. 2019;38(2):779–92.

  54. Peyronnet B, Mironska E, Chapple C, Cardozo L, Oelke M, Dmochowski R, et al. A comprehensive review of overactive bladder pathophysiology: on the way to tailored treatment. Eur Urol. 2019;75(6):988–1000.

  55. Krhut J, Martan A, Zachoval R, Hanuš T, Švabík K, Zvara P. Impact of body mass index on treatment efficacy of mirabegron for overactive bladder in females. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016;196:64–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Mossa A, Velasquez Flores M, Nguyen H, Cammisotto PG, Campeau L. Beta-3 adrenoceptor signaling pathways in urothelial and smooth muscle cells in the presence of succinate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018;367(2):252–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. O’Mara AE, Johnson JW, Linderman JD, Brychta RJ, McGehee S, Fletcher LA, et al. Chronic mirabegron treatment increases human brown fat, HDL cholesterol, and insulin sensitivity. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(5):2209–19.

  58. Finlin BS, Memetimin H, Zhu B, Confides AL, Vekaria HJ, El Khouli RH, et al. The β3-adrenergic receptor agonist mirabegron improves glucose homeostasis in obese humans. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(5):2319–31.

  59. Sui W, Li H, Yang Y, Jing X, Xue F, Cheng J, et al. Bladder drug mirabegron exacerbates atherosclerosis through activation of brown fat-mediated lipolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2019;116(22):10937–42.

  60. Katoh T, Igawa Y, Yamaguchi O, Kato D, Hamada T, Kuroishi K. Cardiovascular safety of antimuscarinic add‐on therapy in patients with overactive bladder who had a suboptimal response to mirabegron monotherapy: a post hoc analysis from the Japanese MILAI II study. Low Urin Tract Symptoms. 2020;12(1):68–80.

  61. Herschorn S, Nazir J, Ramos B, Hakimi Z. Cost-effectiveness of mirabegron compared to tolterodine ER 4 mg for overactive bladder in Canada. Can Urol Assoc J. 2017;11(3–4):123–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Wielage RC, Perk S, Campbell NL, Klein TM, Posta LM, Yuran T, et al. Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder: cost-effectiveness from US commercial health-plan and Medicare Advantage perspectives. J Med Econ. 2016;19(12):1135–43.

  63. Nazir J, Berling M, McCrea C, Fatoye F, Bowditch S, Hakimi Z, et al. Economic impact of mirabegron versus antimuscarinics for the treatment of overactive bladder in the UK. PharmacoEconomics-open. 2017;1(1):25–36.

  64. Yamanishi Y, Yamanishi T, Tajima H, Ikeda S. Mirabegron or tolterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder in Japan: which drug is more cost-effective as the first-line treatment? Int J Urol. 2018;25(10):863–70.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Angulo J, Sanchez-Ballester F, Peral C, Rejas J, Ramos J, Snedecor S, et al. Cost effectiveness analysis of fesoterodine compared to mirabegron in first-line therapy setting for overactive bladder with urge urinary incontinence, from the Spanish National Health System perspective. Actas Urol Esp (English Edition). 2016;40(8):513–22.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Murray B, Hessami SH, Gultyaev D, Lister J, Dmochowski R, Gillard KK, et al. Cost–effectiveness of overactive bladder treatments: from the US payer perspective. J Comp Eff Res. 2019;8(1):61–71.

  67. Edmondson SD, Zhu C, Kar NF, Di Salvo J, Nagabukuro H, Sacre-Salem B, et al. Discovery of vibegron: a potent and selective β3 adrenergic receptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder. J Med Chem. 2016;59(2):609–23.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Rutman MP, King JR, Bennett N, Ankrom W, Mudd PN. PD14-01 once-daily vibegron, a novel oral β3 agonist does not inhibit CYP2D6, a common pathway for drug metabolism in patients on OAB medications. J Urol. 2019;201(Supplement 4):e231–e.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Yoshida M, Takeda M, Gotoh M, Nagai S, Kurose T. Vibegron, a novel potent and selective β3-adrenoreceptor agonist, for the treatment of patients with overactive bladder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Eur Urol. 2018;73(5):783–90.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Yoshida M, Kakizaki H, Takahashi S, Nagai S, Kurose T. Long-term safety and efficacy of the novel β3-adrenoreceptor agonist vibegron in Japanese patients with overactive bladder: a phase III prospective study. Int J Urol. 2018;25(7):668–75.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Staskin D, Frankel J, Varano S, Shortino D, Jankowich R, Mudd PN Jr. International phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-and active-controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vibegron in patients with symptoms of overactive bladder: EMPOWUR. J Urol. 2020.

  72. Staskin D, Frankel J, Varano S, Shortino D, Jankowich R, Mudd P. PD21-01 once-daily vibegron 75 mg for overactive bladder (oab): double-blind 52-week results from an extension study of the international phase 3 trial (EMPOWUR). J Urol. 2020;203(Supplement 4):e453–e.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Mitcheson HD, Samanta S, Muldowney K, Pinto CA,  Rocha BDA, Green S, et al. Vibegron (RVT-901/MK-4618/KRP-114V) administered once daily as monotherapy or concomitantly with tolterodine in patients with an overactive bladder: a multicenter, phase IIb, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Eur Urol. 2019;75(2):274–82.

  74. Dmochowski R, Mitcheson D, Frenkl T, Bennett N, Mudd PN Jr. PD50-03 durable efficacy and safety of long-term once-daily vibegron, a novel oral β-3 adrenergic receptor agonist: a 52-week phase 2 study in patients with overactive bladder syndrome. J Urol. 2018;199(4S):e970–1.

  75. Frankel J, Staskin D, Varano S, Shortino D, Jankowich R, Mudd PN. PD21-02 efficacy of once-daily vibegron 75 mg for overactive bladder (OAB) in older patients: the EMPOWUR randomized, international, phase 3 study. J Urol. 2020;203(Supplement 4):e453–e4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Serati M, Maggiore ULR, Sorice P, Cantaluppi S, Agrò EF, Ghezzi F. Is mirabegron equally as effective when used as first-or second-line therapy in women with overactive bladder? Int Urogynecol J. 2017;28(7):1033–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Chapple CR, Siddiqui E. Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder: a review of efficacy, safety and tolerability with a focus on male, elderly and antimuscarinic poor-responder populations, and patients with OAB in Asia. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10(2):131–51.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lysanne Campeau.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

Cora Fogaing and Abubakr H Mossa declare no potential conflicts of interest. Lysanne Campeau reports personal fees from Astellas, Sanofi, and Boston Scientific and grants from Pfizer, outside the submitted work.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Voiding Dysfunction

All figures and tables are original, designed, and produced by the authors.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fogaing, C., Mossa, A.H. & Campeau, L. Are Beta 3 Adrenergic Agonists Now the Preferred Pharmacologic Management of Overactive Bladder?. Curr Urol Rep 21, 49 (2020).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • B3 adrenergic agonists
  • Overactive bladder
  • Mirabegron
  • Vibegron
  • Combination therapy
  • Efficacy