Treatment Options for Calyceal Diverticula
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Purpose of Review
Calyceal diverticula are rare entities that can pose a significant challenge when it comes to their management. We analyse and summarise the literature with a focus on recent advances in the management of calyceal diverticula and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each surgical technique.
The identification of calyceal diverticula requires a certain level of suspicion and contrast-enhanced imaging. Conventional techniques of imaging the renal collecting system such as the classic intravenous urography are now superseded by the ease of access to contrast-enhanced CT imaging. Conventional surgical techniques for managing calyceal diverticula are not being superseded by new techniques but rather being progressively enhanced and improved through the amelioration of existing technology. Debate still exists over the best treatment approach for the management of symptomatic calyceal diverticula, the choice of which still very much depends on the location and anatomy of the diverticulum itself.
The most significant advance in the management of calyceal diverticula and indeed stones, in general, seems to be the progressive miniaturisation of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) equipment allowing effective treatment with a reduction in associated risks of conventional PCNL. The increasing accessibility of robotics has a role to play in the management of this condition but is not likely surpass flexible ureteroscopic (fURS) or percutaneous approaches.
The future of surgical management for this condition lies in striking a balance between treatment efficacy and invasiveness. More recent identification of metabolic disturbances in patients with calyceal diverticular stones may provide further insights into the underlying pathology of this condition and is likely to play a role in future research of diverticular stones.
KeywordsCalyceal diverticula Endourology Treatment options CT imaging
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Niamh Smyth, Bhavan Rai and Omar M. Aboumarzouk each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Bhaskar Somani is a section editor for Current Urology Reports.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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