Infertility in the Aging Male
Purpose of Review
In many countries, the average age of paternity is rising. The negative effect of older age on fertility in women is well documented; however, less is known about the impact of paternal age on fecundity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how paternal age affects semen parameters, reproductive success, and offspring health.
Contemporary evidence confirms that aged men have worse semen parameters, including overall negative changes in sperm genetics. Reproductive outcomes with unassisted pregnancy tend to be worse with older fathers. While most current studies of assisted pregnancy do show a negative effect of paternal age, there are some conflicting results. Studies continue to show an overall increased risk of health problems, particularly neuropsychiatric conditions, in the offspring of older men.
While men can often maintain fertility potential throughout a lifetime, increasing evidence indicates worsening of semen parameters, including sperm genetics, and potentially worse reproductive success. Older men should also be counseled on their offspring’s possible increased risk of certain medical conditions.
KeywordsMale infertility Aging male Advanced paternal age
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Daniel J. Mazur declares no potential conflicts of interest.
Larry I. Lipshultz is a consultant for AbbVie, Lipocine, Aytu Bioscience, and Endo Pharmaceuticals and a speaker for American Medical Systems and Endo Pharmaceuticals.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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