Diagnosis and Management of Gynecomastia for Urologists
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Purpose of Review
Our aim is to review the steps of diagnosis and management of gynecomastia with a special focus on treatment of gynecomastia associated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
Recent studies investigating tamoxifen and radiation therapy for both therapy and prophylaxis of bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia are reviewed.
Gynecomastia is a common clinical problem, affecting between one and two thirds of middle-aged men. Diagnosis is typically made by history and physical exam. Common causes include chronic medical conditions and medications; however, unexplained gynecomastia should prompt laboratory work-up, followed by appropriate imaging studies to evaluate for hormone producing cancers. For patients taking bicalutamide for treatment of prostate cancer, tamoxifen or radiation therapy for gynecomastia are excellent options.
KeywordsGynecomastia Prostate cancer Tamoxifen Androgen deprivation therapy
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Lee Baumgarten declares no potential conflicts of interest. Ali A. Dabaja is a section editor for Current Urology Reports.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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