Updates in the Metabolic Management of Calcium Stones
Purpose of Review
Urinary risk factors, such as hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and hyperoxaluria, either in combination or alone, are associated with calcium stones. Dietary habits as well as underlying medical conditions can influence urinary risk factors. Evaluation of the conglomerate of patients’ stone risks provides evidence for individualized medical management, an effective and patient-supported approach to prevention.
Many patients with stones desire prevention to avoid repeated surgical interventions. Yet, recent practice pattern assessments and health care utilization data show that many patients are rarely referred for metabolic evaluation or management. Innovations in metabolic management over the past decade have improved its effectiveness in reducing risk and preventing calcium stones. Although no new pharmacologic agents for calcium stone prevention have recently become available, there is relatively new thinking about some diet-based approaches.
This review will synthesize current evidence to support individualized metabolic management of calcium stones.
KeywordsMetabolic management Medical management Prevention Diet Urolithiasis Nephrolithiasis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Kristina L. Penniston reports personal fees from Retrophin.
Stephen Y. Nakada declares no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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