Current Urology Reports

, 18:81 | Cite as

African-American Prostate Cancer Disparities

  • Zachary L. Smith
  • Scott E. Eggener
  • Adam B. Murphy
Prostate Cancer (S Prasad, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Prostate Cancer


Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population.

Recent Findings

African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments.


Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men. Oncological as well as functional outcomes may differ and are potentially due to a combination of genetic, molecular, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors.


Prostate Prostate cancer African-American Prostate-specific antigen 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Zachary L. Smith, Scott E. Eggener, and Adam B. Murphy each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    DeSantis CE, Siegel RL, Sauer AG, Miller KD, Fedewa SA, Alcaraz KI, et al. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016;66:290–308. doi: 10.3322/caac.21340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( SEER*Stat Database: Mortality—All COD, Aggregated With State, Total U.S. (1969–2012), National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2015. Underlying mortality data provided by NCHS ( n.d.
  3. 3.
    Holmes JA, Bensen JT, Mohler JL, Song L, Mishel MH, Chen RC. Quality of care received and patient-reported regret in prostate cancer: analysis of a population-based prospective cohort. Cancer. 2017;123:138–43. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mahal BA, Ziehr DR, Aizer AA, Hyatt AS, Sammon JD, Schmid M, et al. Getting back to equal: the influence of insurance status on racial disparities in the treatment of African American men with high-risk prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2014;32:1285–91. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.04.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leyh-Bannurah S-R, Gazdovich S, Budäus L, Zaffuto E, Dell’Oglio P, Briganti A, et al. Population-based external validation of the updated 2012 Partin tables in contemporary North American prostate cancer patients. Prostate. 2017;77:105–13. doi: 10.1002/pros.23253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leapman MS, Freedland SJ, Aronson WJ, Kane CJ, Terris MK, Walker K, et al. Pathological and biochemical outcomes among African-American and Caucasian men with low risk prostate cancer in the SEARCH database: implications for active surveillance candidacy. J Urol. 2016;196:1408–14. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2016.06.086.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Spratt DE, Chan T, Waldron L, Speers C, Feng FY, Ogunwobi OO, et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in genomic sequencing. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2:1070–4. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.1854.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Giri VN, Egleston B, Ruth K, Uzzo RG, Chen DYT, Buyyounouski M, et al. Race, genetic West African ancestry, and prostate cancer prediction by prostate-specific antigen in prospectively screened high-risk men. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2:244–50. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zeegers MPA, Jellema A, Ostrer H. Empiric risk of prostate carcinoma for relatives of patients with prostate carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Cancer. 2003;97:1894–903. doi: 10.1002/cncr.11262.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olama Al AA, Kote-Jarai Z, Berndt SI, Conti DV, Schumacher F, Han Y, et al. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer. Nat Genet. 2014;46:1103–9. doi: 10.1038/ng.3094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoffmann TJ, Van Den Eeden SK, Sakoda LC, Jorgenson E, Habel LA, Graff RE, et al. A large multiethnic genome-wide association study of prostate cancer identifies novel risk variants and substantial ethnic differences. Cancer Discov. 2015;5:878–91. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0315.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Devaney JM, Wang S, Furbert-Harris P, Apprey V, Ittmann M, Wang B-D, et al. Genome-wide differentially methylated genes in prostate cancer tissues from African-American and Caucasian men. Epigenetics. 2015;10:319–28. doi: 10.1080/15592294.2015.1022019.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Powell IJ, Dyson G, Land S, Ruterbusch J, Bock CH, Lenk S, et al. Genes associated with prostate cancer are differentially expressed in African American and European American men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2013;22:891–7. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gray IC, Phillips SM, Lee SJ, Neoptolemos JP, Weissenbach J, Spurr NK. Loss of the chromosomal region 10q23-25 in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 1995;55:4800–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cooney KA, McCarthy JD, Lange E, Huang L, Miesfeldt S, Montie JE, et al. Prostate cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 1q: a confirmatory study. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89:955–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choudhury AD, Eeles R, Freedland SJ, Isaacs WB, Pomerantz MM, Schalken JA, et al. The role of genetic markers in the management of prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2012;62:577–87. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2012.05.054.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hoffmann TJ, Passarelli MN, Graff RE, Emami NC, Sakoda LC, Jorgenson E, et al. Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels identifies novel loci independent of prostate cancer. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14248. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14248.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Taioli E, Sears V, Watson A, Flores-Obando RE, Jackson MD, Ukoli FA, et al. Polymorphisms in CYP17 and CYP3A4 and prostate cancer in men of African descent. Prostate. 2013;73:668–76. doi: 10.1002/pros.22612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brureau L, Moningo D, Emeville E, Ferdinand S, Punga A, Lufuma S, et al. Polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism-related genes and prostate cancer risk in two populations of African ancestry. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0153609. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153609.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bangsi D, Zhou J, Sun Y, Patel NP, Darga LL, Heilbrun LK, et al. Impact of a genetic variant in CYP3A4 on risk and clinical presentation of prostate cancer among white and African-American men. Uro. 2006;24:21–7. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2005.09.005.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jingwi EY, Abbas M, Ricks-Santi L, Winchester D, Beyene D, Day A, et al. Vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphisms are associated with PSA level, Gleason score and prostate cancer risk in African-American men. Anticancer Res. 2015;35:1549–58.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harris SS. Vitamin D and African Americans. J Nutr. 2006;136:1126–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. 2017. Accessed 17 Feb 2017.
  24. 24.
    Freedland SJ, Sutter ME, Naitoh J, Dorey F, Csathy GS, Aronson WJ. Clinical characteristics in black and white men with prostate cancer in an equal access medical center. Urology. 2000;55:387–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moul JW, Sesterhenn IA, Connelly RR, Douglas T, Srivastava S, Mostofi FK, et al. Prostate-specific antigen values at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis in African-American men. JAMA. 1995;274:1277–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kryvenko ON, Balise R, Soodana Prakash N, Epstein JI. African-American men with Gleason score 3+3=6 prostate cancer produce less prostate specific antigen than Caucasian men: a potential impact on active surveillance. J Urol. 2016;195:301–6. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.08.089.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bensen JT, Xu Z, Smith GJ, Mohler JL, Fontham ETH, Taylor JA. Genetic polymorphism and prostate cancer aggressiveness: a case-only study of 1,536 GWAS and candidate SNPs in African-Americans and European-Americans. Prostate. 2013;73:11–22. doi: 10.1002/pros.22532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saltzman AF, Luo S, Scherrer JF, Carson KD, Grubb RL, Hudson MA. Earlier prostate-specific antigen testing in African American men—clinical support for the recommendation. Urol Oncol. 2015;33:330.e9–17. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.03.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Daskivich TJ, Kwan L, Dash A, Litwin MS. Racial parity in tumor burden, treatment choice and survival outcomes in men with prostate cancer in the VA healthcare system. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2015;18:104–9. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2014.51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sundi D, Kryvenko ON, Carter HB, Ross AE, Epstein JI, Schaeffer EM. Pathological examination of radical prostatectomy specimens in men with very low risk disease at biopsy reveals distinct zonal distribution of cancer in black American men. J Urol. 2014;191:60–7. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.06.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tiguert R, Gheiler EL, Tefilli MV, Banerjee M, Grignon DJ, Sakr W, et al. Racial differences and prognostic significance of tumor location in radical prostatectomy specimens. Prostate. 1998;37:230–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tiguert R, Kabbani W, Sakr W, Gheiler EL, Pontes JE. Origin and racial distribution of glandular tissue in the anterior compartment of the prostate: an autopsy study. Prostate. 1999;39:310–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Faisal FA, Sundi D, Tosoian JJ, Choeurng V, Alshalalfa M, Ross AE, et al. Racial variations in prostate cancer molecular subtypes and androgen receptor signaling reflect anatomic tumor location. Eur Urol. 2016;70:14–7. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.09.031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sundi D, Faisal FA, Trock BJ, Landis PK, Feng Z, Ross AE, et al. Reclassification rates are higher among African American men than Caucasians on active surveillance. Urology. 2015;85:155–60. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2014.08.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abern MR, Bassett MR, Tsivian M, Bañez LL, Polascik TJ, Ferrandino MN, et al. Race is associated with discontinuation of active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer: results from the Duke Prostate Center. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16:85–90. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2012.38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Iremashvili V, Soloway MS, Rosenberg DL, Manoharan M. Clinical and demographic characteristics associated with prostate cancer progression in patients on active surveillance. J Urol. 2012;187:1594–9. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.12.082.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    O’Malley PG, Nguyen DP, Awamlh Al BAH, Wu G, Thompson IM, Sanda M, et al. Racial variation in the utility of urinary biomarkers, PCA3 and T2ERG, in a large, multicenter study. J Urol. 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2017.01.058.
  38. 38.
    Parekh DJ, Punnen S, Sjoberg DD, Asroff SW, Bailen JL, Cochran JS, et al. A multi-institutional prospective trial in the USA confirms that the 4Kscore accurately identifies men with high-grade prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2015;68:464–70. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.10.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schwen ZR, Tosoian JJ, Sokoll LJ, Mangold L, Humphreys E, Schaeffer EM, et al. Prostate Health Index (PHI) predicts high-stage pathology in African American men. Urology. 2016;90:136–40. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2015.12.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Helfand BT, Kearns J, Conran C, Xu J. Clinical validity and utility of genetic risk scores in prostate cancer. Asian J Androl. 2016;18:509–14. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.182981.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Virlogeux V, Graff RE, Hoffmann TJ, Witte JS. Replication and heritability of prostate cancer risk variants: impact of population-specific factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2015;24:938–43. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Campbell MC, Tishkoff SA. African genetic diversity: implications for human demographic history, modern human origins, and complex disease mapping. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2008;9:403–33. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genom.9.081307.164258.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schröder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TLJ, Ciatto S, Nelen V, et al. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1320–8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0810084.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schröder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TLJ, Zappa M, Nelen V, et al. Screening and prostate cancer mortality: results of the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) at 13 years of follow-up. Lancet. 2014; doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60525-0.
  45. 45.
    Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL, Buys SS, Chia D, Church TR, et al. Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1310–9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0810696.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL, Buys SS, Chia D, Church TR, et al. Prostate cancer screening in the randomized prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial: mortality results after 13 years of follow-up. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104:125–32. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djr500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Powell IJ, Bock CH, Ruterbusch JJ, Sakr W. Evidence supports a faster growth rate and/or earlier transformation to clinically significant prostate cancer in black than in white American men, and influences racial progression and mortality disparity. J Urol. 2010;183:1792–6. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.01.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ravery V, Dominique S, Hupertan V, Ben Rhouma S, Toublanc M, Boccon-Gibod L, et al. Prostate cancer characteristics in a multiracial community. Eur Urol. 2008;53:533–8. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2007.04.048.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Evans S, Metcalfe C, Patel B, Ibrahim F, Anson K, Chinegwundoh F, et al. Clinical presentation and initial management of black men and white men with prostate cancer in the United Kingdom: the PROCESS cohort study. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:249–54. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605461.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Carter HB, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ, Etzioni R, Freedland SJ, Greene KL, et al. Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline. J Urol. 2013;190:419–26. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.04.119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Briers E, Cumberbatch MG, De Santis M, et al. EAU-ESTRO-SIOG guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent. Eur Urol. 2016; doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.08.003.
  52. 52.
    Powell IJ, Vigneau FD, Bock CH, Ruterbusch J, Heilbrun LK. Reducing prostate cancer racial disparity: evidence for aggressive early prostate cancer PSA testing of African American men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2014;23:1505–11. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:120–34. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-157-2-201207170-00459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bhindi B, Mamdani M, Kulkarni GS, Finelli A, Hamilton RJ, Trachtenberg J, et al. Impact of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations against prostate specific antigen screening on prostate biopsy and cancer detection rates. J Urol. 2015;193:1519–24. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2014.11.096.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Barocas DA, Grubb R, Black A, Penson DF, Fowke JH, Andriole G, et al. Association between race and follow-up diagnostic care after a positive prostate cancer screening test in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer. 2013;119:2223–9. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    LaVeist TA, Nickerson KJ, Bowie JV. Attitudes about racism, medical mistrust, and satisfaction with care among African American and white cardiac patients. Med Care Res Rev. 2000;57(Suppl 1):146–61. doi: 10.1177/1077558700057001S07.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Do YK, Carpenter WR, Spain P, Clark JA, Hamilton RJ, Galanko JA, et al. Race, healthcare access and physician trust among prostate cancer patients. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:31–40. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9431-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bustillo NE, McGinty HL, Dahn JR, Yanez B, Antoni MH, Kava BR, et al. Fatalism, medical mistrust, and pretreatment health-related quality of life in ethnically diverse prostate cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2015; doi: 10.1002/pon.4030.
  59. 59.
    Rice LJ, Jefferson M, Briggs V, Delmoor E, Johnson JC, Gattoni-Celli S, et al. Discordance in perceived risk and epidemiological outcomes of prostate cancer among African American men. Prev Med Rep. 2017;7:1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.04.010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Taksler GB, Keating NL, Cutler DM. Explaining racial differences in prostate cancer mortality. Cancer. 2012;118:4280–9. doi: 10.1002/cncr.27379.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gerhard RS, Patil D, Liu Y, Ogan K, Alemozaffar M, Jani AB, et al. Treatment of men with high-risk prostate cancer based on race, insurance coverage, and access to advanced technology. Urol Oncol. 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.12.004.
  62. 62.
    Shin T, Smyth TB, Ukimura O, Ahmadi N, de Castro Abreu AL, Oishi M, et al. Detection of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography image-fusion targeted biopsy in African-American men. BJU Int. 2017;1:342. doi: 10.1111/bju.13786.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tamada T, Prabhu V, Li J, Babb JS, Taneja SS, Rosenkrantz AB. Assessment of prostate cancer aggressiveness using apparent diffusion coefficient values: impact of patient race and age. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017:1–8. doi: 10.1007/s00261-017-1058-y.
  64. 64.
    Draisma G, Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, Mariotto A, Wever E, Gulati R, et al. Lead time and overdiagnosis in prostate-specific antigen screening: importance of methods and context. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:374–83. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djp001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Thompson I, Thrasher JB, Aus G, Burnett AL, Canby-Hagino ED, Cookson MS, et al. Guideline for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer: 2007 update. Juro. 2007;177:2106–31. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.03.003.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chen RC, Rumble RB, Loblaw DA, Finelli A, Ehdaie B, Cooperberg MR, et al. Active surveillance for the management of localized prostate cancer (Cancer Care Ontario Guideline): American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline endorsement. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:2182–90. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2015.65.7759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mohler JL, Armstrong AJ, Bahnson RR, D’Amico AV, Davis BJ, Eastham JA, et al. Prostate cancer, version 1.2016. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw. 2016;14:19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sundi D, Ross AE, Humphreys EB, Han M, Partin AW, Carter HB, et al. African American men with very low-risk prostate cancer exhibit adverse oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy: should active surveillance still be an option for them? J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:2991–7. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.47.0302.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Maurice MJ, Sundi D, Schaeffer EM, Abouassaly R. Risk of pathological upgrading and up staging among men with low risk prostate cancer varies by race: results from the National Cancer Database. J Urol. 2016;197:627–31. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2016.08.095.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dinizo M, Shih W, Salmasi A, Faiena I, Modi P, Han M, et al. MP53-04 significant inter-institutional variations in racial disparities among African-American men eligible for prostate cancer active surveillance. Juro. 2015;193:e636. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.1698.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hamdy FC, Donovan JL, Lane JA, Mason M, Metcalfe C, Holding P, et al. 10-year outcomes after monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1606220.
  72. 72.
    Klotz L, Vesprini D, Sethukavalan P, Jethava V, Zhang L, Jain S, et al. Long-term follow-up of a large active surveillance cohort of patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:272–7. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.1192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    • Faisal FA, Sundi D, Cooper JL, Humphreys EB, Partin AW, Han M, et al. Racial disparities in oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy: long-term follow-up. Urology. 2014;84:1434–41. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2014.08.039. Study evaluated the oncologic parameters following radical prostatectomy and noted worse outcomes for African Americans. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mahal BA, Aizer AA, Ziehr DR, Hyatt AS, Choueiri TK, Hu JC, et al. Racial disparities in prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with low-risk prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2014;12:e189–95. doi: 10.1016/j.clgc.2014.04.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jalloh M, Myers F, Cowan JE, Carroll PR, Cooperberg MR. Racial variation in prostate cancer upgrading and upstaging among men with low-risk clinical characteristics. Eur Urol. 2015;67:451–7. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.03.026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schreiber D, Chhabra A, Rineer J, Weedon J, Schwartz D. A population-based study of men with low-volume low-risk prostate cancer: does African-American race predict for more aggressive disease? Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2015;13:e259–64. doi: 10.1016/j.clgc.2015.02.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sanchez-Ortiz RF, Troncoso P, Babaian RJ, Lloreta J, Johnston DA, Pettaway CA. African-American men with nonpalpable prostate cancer exhibit greater tumor volume than matched white men. Cancer. 2006;107:75–82. doi: 10.1002/cncr.21954.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bodman von C, Matikainen MP, Yunis LH, Laudone V, Scardino PT, Akin O, et al. Ethnic variation in pelvimetric measures and its impact on positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy. Urology. 2010;76:1092–6. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2010.02.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    •• Wilt TJ, Brawer MK, Jones KM, Barry MJ, Aronson WJ, Fox S, et al. Radical prostatectomy versus observation for localized prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:203–13. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1113162. Study randomized patients to radical prostatectomy or observation and showed largely no difference in outcomes. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Garmo H, Rider JR, Taari K, Busch C, et al. Radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:932–42. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1311593.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lee EW, Marien T, Laze J, Agalliu I, Lepor H. Comparison of health-related quality-of-life outcomes for African-American and Caucasian-American men after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2012;110:1129–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.10951.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Stanford JL, Feng Z, Hamilton AS, Gilliland FD, Stephenson RA, Eley JW, et al. Urinary and sexual function after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer: the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. JAMA. 2000;283:354–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sanda MG, Dunn RL, Michalski J, Sandler HM, Northouse L, Hembroff L, et al. Quality of life and satisfaction with outcome among prostate-cancer survivors. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1250–61. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa074311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Swords K, Wallen EM, Pruthi RS. The impact of race on prostate cancer detection and choice of treatment in men undergoing a contemporary extended biopsy approach. Urol Oncol. 2010;28:280–4. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2008.09.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ziehr DR, Mahal BA, Aizer AA, Hyatt AS, Beard CJ, D’Amico AV, et al. Income inequality and treatment of African American men with high-risk prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2015;33:18.e7–13. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.09.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Johnstone PAS, Kane CJ, Sun L, Wu H, Moul JW, McLeod DG, et al. Effect of race on biochemical disease-free outcome in patients with prostate cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy in an equal-access health care system: radiation oncology report of the Department of Defense Center for Prostate Disease Research. Radiology. 2002;225:420–6. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2252011491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Connell PP, Ignacio L, Haraf D, Awan AM, Halpern H, Abdalla I, et al. Equivalent racial outcome after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a single departmental experience. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:54–61. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2001.19.1.54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rosser CJ, Kuban DA, Lee S-J, Levy LB, Pettaway C, Kamat AM, et al. Racial influence on biochemical disease-free survival in men treated with external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96:939–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shah C, Jones PM, Wallace M, Kestin LL, Ghilezan M, Fakhouri M, et al. Differences in disease presentation, treatment outcomes, and toxicities in African American patients treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 2012;35:566–71. doi: 10.1097/COC.0b013e3182208262.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Roach M, Lu J, Pilepich MV, Asbell SO, Mohiuddin M, Grignon D. Race and survival of men treated for prostate cancer on radiation therapy oncology group phase III randomized trials. Juro. 2003;169:245–50. doi: 10.1097/ Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bryant C, Mendenhall NP, Henderson RH, Nichols RC, Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, et al. Does race influence health-related quality of life and toxicity following proton therapy for prostate cancer? Am J Clin Oncol. 2016;39:261–5. doi: 10.1097/COC.0000000000000050.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yamoah K, Stone N, Stock R. Impact of race on biochemical disease recurrence after prostate brachytherapy. Cancer. 2011;117:5589–600. doi: 10.1002/cncr.26183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Winkfield KM, Chen M-H, Dosoretz DE, Salenius SA, Katin M, Ross R, et al. Race and survival following brachytherapy-based treatment for men with localized or locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:e345–50. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.02.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kovtun KA, Chen M-H, Braccioforte MH, Moran BJ, D’Amico AV. Race and mortality risk after radiation therapy in men treated with or without androgen-suppression therapy for favorable-risk prostate cancer. Cancer. 2016;122:3608–14. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wang C, Kamrava M, King C, Steinberg ML. Racial disparity in prostate cancer-specific mortality for high-risk prostate cancer: a population-based study. Cureus. 2017;9:e961. doi: 10.7759/cureus.961.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zachary L. Smith
    • 1
  • Scott E. Eggener
    • 1
  • Adam B. Murphy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Section of UrologyThe University of Chicago MedicineChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations