Bladder Neck Contracture After Endoscopic Surgery for Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Incidence, Treatment, and Outcomes
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Purpose of Review
In recent years, new endoscopic techniques have been developed to reduce the morbidity of transurethral resection of the prostate. Nonetheless, complications are still frequently encountered and bladder neck contracture (BNC) is a well-described complication after endoscopic surgery for benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). Our aim is to review and discuss the contemporary incidence, the relevant treatment strategies, and their outcomes.
Findings suggest that BNC is a common complication with an acceptably low incidence but can range in complexity. Most contractures were usually managed successfully with conservative measures; nevertheless, in patients with refractory BNC, various valuable management strategies were employed with different kinds of success and re-treatment rates.
In consideration of these challenging possibilities, the treatment of BNC requires a tailored approach with patient-specific management that can range from simple procedures to complex surgical reconstruction.
KeywordsBladder neck contracture Benign prostatic hyperplasia Bladder outlet obstruction Transurethral procedures Surgery Outcomes
The authors thank Kimberlee Ann Manzi for the linguistic revision.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Giulia Primiceri, Pietro Castellan, Michele Marchioni, Luigi Schips, and Luca Cindolo each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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