The Emergence of Kidney Stone Disease During Childhood—Impact on Adults
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Purpose of Review
The goal of this chapter is to review the recent epidemiologic trends of kidney stone disease and discuss the impact of the increasing incidence of nephrolithiasis among children on adults with respect to extra-renal manifestations, surgical management, and secondary prevention.
Among pediatric patients, kidney stone disease has been increasing at a rate of approximately 5–10% annually. Kidney stone disease has been associated with increased risks of coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and decreased bone mineral density, which is concerning for patients diagnosed at a young age. Improvements in endo-urology have allowed for less invasive surgical treatment of stones in the pediatric population. However, current guidelines often lack recommendations for evaluation, medical, and surgical management of children with kidney stone disease.
Nephrolithiasis is a disorder of mineral metabolism, which is beginning during childhood with increasing frequency. Kidney stone disease often exists over the lifetime and is associated with serious conditions that are important for pediatric and adult urologists to recognize and consider in their evaluation and treatment of patients.
KeywordsNephrolithiasis Children Extrarenal manifestations Stone prevention Transition of care
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Jeremy R. Bonzo declares no potential conflicts of interest.
Gregory E. Tasian reports grants from NIH-NIDDK (K23DK106428) and personal fees from Allena Pharmaceuticals.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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