Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) has gained increasing popularity in the management of renal masses due to its technical feasibility and shorter learning curve with superior perioperative outcomes compared to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Given the cumulation of surgical experience on RAPN, the indication for RAPN has been extended to more challenging, complex cases, such as hilar or endophytic tumors. Renal masses that are completely endophytic can be very challenging to surgeons. These cases are associated with poor recognition of mass extension, higher risk of inadvertent vascular, or pelvicalyceal system injury. As a result, this can lead to potential positive surgical margin, difficulty in performing renorrhaphy as well as higher perioperative complication rates. There is few evidence of oncologic and functional outcomes of RAPN on treating endophytic masses. Therefore, the objective of this review is to critically analyze the current evidence and to provide a summary on the outcomes of RAPN for endophytic renal masses.
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Conflict of Interest
Dr. Dae Keun Kim, Dr. Christos Komninos, Dr. Lawrence Kim, and Dr. Koon Ho Rha reported no potential conflict of interest relevant to this article.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Kidney Diseases
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Kim, D.K., Komninos, C., Kim, L. et al. Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy for Endophytic Tumors. Curr Urol Rep 16, 76 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11934-015-0552-4
- Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy
- Renal mass
- Endophytic mass
- Nephron sparing surgery