Patient Psoas Muscle Mass as a Predictor of Complications and Survival After Radical Cystectomy


As a treatment for high-risk bladder cancer, radical cystectomy (RC) remains a highly morbid operation with complication rates of 40–60 % and mortality rates as high as 9 % in the first 90 days after surgery (Aziz et al., Eur Urol 66(1):156–163, 2014; Shabsigh et al., Eur Urol 55(1):164–174, 2009). Many patients suffer from a failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with anorexia, weight loss, dehydration, and immobility. In elderly patients, failure-to-thrive may result in loss of independence and a cascade of events that increases the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality, ultimately resulting in impaired survival. Psoas muscle mass has been used to predict morbidity and mortality after major surgical procedures in vulnerable populations with substantial comorbidities. Increasingly, psoas muscle mass is also being used to predict outcomes after RC. If patients with a high risk of impaired survival are identified preoperatively, prehabilitative interventions can be integrated into their preparation for surgical treatment (Porserud et al., Clin Rehab 28(5):451–459, 2014; Friedman et al., Nutr Clin Pract: Off Publ Am Soc Parenter Enter Nutr 30(2):175–179, 2015). This chapter discusses the role of psoas muscle mass as a predictor of negative surgical outcomes after cystectomy.

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Conflict of Interest

Hamed Ahmadi, James E. Montie, Alon Z. Weizer, Todd Morgan, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, and Cheryl T. Lee each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Correspondence to Cheryl T. Lee.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Urothelial Cancer

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Ahmadi, H., Montie, J.E., Weizer, A.Z. et al. Patient Psoas Muscle Mass as a Predictor of Complications and Survival After Radical Cystectomy. Curr Urol Rep 16, 79 (2015).

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  • Radical cystectomy
  • Psoas area
  • Survival
  • Complications
  • Morphomics
  • Sarcopenia