Varicocele and Hypogonadism
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Accumulating evidence suggests that varicocele, long associated with male infertility, is also a risk factor for low testosterone levels. The exact pathophysiology of the negative effects of varicocele on testicular function is not well understood, but theories include venous stasis, increased testicular temperature, oxidative stress, and resulting toxic environment. While prior studies report conflicting effects of non-microsurgical varicocelectomy on testosterone level, recent literature demonstrates that microsurgical varicocelectomy improves testosterone levels in men with varicocele and low testosterone preoperatively.
KeywordsVaricocele Hypogonadism Low testosterone Microsurgical varicocelectomy Subinguinal varicocele repair Leydig cell function
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Conflict of Interest
Dr. Ali Dabaja reported no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article. Dr. Matthew Wosnitzer reported no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article. Dr. Marc Goldstein reported no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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