Advertisement

Current Sports Medicine Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 182–186 | Cite as

Dietary antioxidants for the athlete

  • Mustafa Atalay
  • Jani Lappalainen
  • Chandan K. SenEmail author
Article

Abstract

Physical exercise induces oxidative stress and tissue damage. Although a basal level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is required to drive redox signaling and numerous physiologic processes, excess ROS during exercise may have adverse implications on health and performance. Antioxidant nutrients may be helpful in that regard. Caution should be exercised against excess antioxidant supplements, however. This article presents a digest for sports practitioners. The following three recommendations are made: 1) it is important to determine the individual antioxidant need of each athlete performing a specific sport; 2) multinutrient preparations, as opposed to megadoses of any single form of nutrient, seem to be a more prudent path to choose; and 3) for outcomes of antioxidant supplementation, performance should not be the only criteria. Overall well being of the athlete, faster recovery, and minimization of injury time could all be affected by antioxidant therapy.

Keywords

Selenium Lipoic Acid Excess Reactive Oxygen Species Antioxidant Supplementation Dietary Reference Intake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Sen CK, Packer L, Hänninen O: Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2000. A comprehensive treatise on the subject designed for readers who are new to the subject or who are looking for itemized "take home" messages.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sen CK: Oxidants and antioxidants in exercise. J Appl Physiol 1995, 79:675–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sen CK, Packer L: Antioxidant and redox regulation of gene transcription. Faseb J 1996, 10:709–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stone JR, Yang S: Hydrogen peroxide: a signaling messenger. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006, 8:243–270. Comprehensively reviews how reactive oxygen species may drive cell signaling processes central to health and disease.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roy S, Khanna S, Nallu K, et al.: Dermal wound healing is subject to redox control. Mol Ther 2006, 13:211–220.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sen CK: Antioxidant and redox regulation of cellular signaling: introduction. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001, 33:368–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sen CK: Antioxidants in exercise nutrition. Sports Med 2001, 31:891–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Medved I, Brown MJ, Bjorksten AR, et al.: Effects of intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion on time to fatigue and potassium regulation during prolonged cycling exercise. J Appl Physiol 2004, 96:211–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lenda DM, Boegehold MA: Effect of a high salt diet on microvascular antioxidant enzymes. J Vasc Res 2002, 39:41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Skrha J, Kunesova M, Hilgertova J, et al.: Short-term very low calorie diet reduces oxidative stress in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Physiol Res 2005, 54:33–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dierckx N, Horvath G, van Gils C, et al.: Oxidative stress status in patients with diabetes mellitus: relationship to diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003, 57:999–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choi EY, Cho YO: Allium vegetable diet can reduce the exercise-induced oxidative stress but does not alter plasma cholesterol profile in rats. Ann Nutr Metab 2006, 50:132–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miquel J: Can antioxidant diet supplementation protect against age-related mitochondrial damage? Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002, 959:508–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Galli C, Visioli F: Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean diet. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2001, 71:185–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sies H, Stahl W, Sevanian A: Nutritional, dietary and postprandial oxidative stress. J Nutr 2005, 135:969–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duarte TL, Lunec J: Review: When is an antioxidant not an antioxidant? A review of novel actions and reactions of vitamin C. Free Radic Res 2005, 39:671–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ashton T, Young IS, Peters JR, et al.: Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, exercise, and oxidative stress: an ascorbic acid intervention study. J Appl Physiol 1999, 87:2032–2036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clarkson PM, Thompson HS: Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health? Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 72:637S-646S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hemila H: Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress. Int J Sports Med 1996, 17:379–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jackson MJ, Khassaf M, Vasilaki A, et al.: Vitamin E and the oxidative stress of exercise. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004, 1031:158–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Viitala P, Newhouse IJ: Vitamin E supplementation, exercise and lipid peroxidation in human participants. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004, 93:108–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sacheck JM, Blumberg JB: Role of vitamin E and oxidative stress in exercise. Nutrition 2001, 17:809–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S: Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system? Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004, 1031:127–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S: Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols. Life Sci 2006, 78:2088–2098.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sen CK, Packer L: Thiol homeostasis and supplements in physical exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 72:653S-669S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sen CK, Atalay M, Hanninen O: Exercise-induced oxidative stress: glutathione supplementation and deficiency. J Appl Physiol 1994, 77:2177–2187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Atalay M, Laaksonen DE, Khanna S, et al.: Vitamin E regulates changes in tissue antioxidants induced by fish oil and acute exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000, 32:601–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sen CK: Update on thiol status and supplements in physical exercise. Can J Appl Physiol2001,26 Suppl:S4–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rahman I, Biswas SK, Jimenez LA, et al.: Glutathione, stress responses, and redox signaling in lung inflammation. Antioxid Redox Signal 2005, 7:42–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Burk RF: Selenium, an antioxidant nutrient. Nutr Clin Care 2002, 5:75–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reid MB, Stokic DS, Koch SM, et al.: N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. J Clin Invest 1994, 94:2468–2474.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sen CK, Rankinen T, Vaisanen S, et al.: Oxidative stress after human exercise: effect of N-acetylcysteine supplementation. J Appl Physiol 1994, 76:2570–2577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Neuman I, Nahum H, Ben-Amotz A: Prevention of exercise-induced asthma by a natural isomer mixture of beta-carotene. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999, 82:549–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sumida S, Doi T, Sakurai M, et al.: Effect of a single bout of exercise and beta-carotene supplementation on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in humans. Free Radic Res 1997, 27:607–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khanna S, Atalay M, Laaksonen DE, et al.: Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation: tissue glutathione homeostasis at rest and after exercise. J Appl Physiol 1999, 86:1191–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lukaski HC: Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition 2004, 20:632–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    US Department of Health and Human Services and the US Department of Agriculture:Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2005.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Economos CD, Bortz SS, Nelson ME: Nutritional practices of elite athletes. Practical recommendations. Sports Med 1993, 16:381–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guilland JC, Penaranda T, Gallet C, et al.: Vitamin status of young athletes including the effects of supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989, 21:441–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Miller ER, 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, et al.: Metaanalysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005, 142:37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Khanna S, Roy S, Slivka A, et al.: Neuroprotective properties of the natural vitamin E alpha-tocotrienol. Stroke 2005, 36:2258–2264.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zern TL, Fernandez ML: Cardioprotective effects of dietary polyphenols. J Nutr 2005, 135:2291–2294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW, et al.: Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Jama 1996, 276:1957–1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al.: The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 2004, 164:2335–2342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cesari M, Pahor M, Bartali B, et al.: Antioxidants and physical performance in elderly persons: the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004, 79:289–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Coombes JS, Powers SK, Rowell B, et al.: Effects of vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid on skeletal muscle contractile properties. J Appl Physiol 2001, 90:1424–1430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chandra RK, McBean LD: Zinc and immunity. Nutrition 1994, 10:79–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vinceti M, Wei ET, Malagoli C, et al.: Adverse health effects of selenium in humans. Rev Environ Health 2001, 16:233–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ: Clinical practice. What vitamins should I be taking, doctor? N Engl J Med 2001, 345:1819–1824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustafa Atalay
  • Jani Lappalainen
  • Chandan K. Sen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.512 Davis Heart & Lung Research InstituteThe Ohio State University Medical CenterColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations