Current Sexual Health Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 38–48 | Cite as

Current State of Female-to-Male Gender Confirming Surgery

  • Shane D. Morrison
  • Marcelina G. Perez
  • Michael Nedelman
  • Curtis N. Crane
Current Controversies (P Kleinplatz and C Moser, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Current Controversies


Current advances in female-to-male gender confirming surgery allow for facial masculinization, chest masculinization, gynecologic removal of female sex organs, and genital reconstruction. With the breadth of approaches to each of these surgeries, it is important for providers as well as patients to be informed of the available options. In this review, the current state of female-to-male surgical approaches is discussed for the gender dysphoric patient who has typically initiated medical transition.


Gender dysphoria Female-to-male Chest masculinization Facial masculinization Vaginectomy Metoidioplasty Phalloplasty Scrotoplasty Urethroplasty 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Shane D. Morrison, Marcelina G. Perez, Michael Nedelman, and Curtis N. Crane declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shane D. Morrison
    • 1
  • Marcelina G. Perez
    • 2
  • Michael Nedelman
    • 2
  • Curtis N. Crane
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Stanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Brownstein and Crane Surgical ServicesGreenbraeUSA

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