Current Rheumatology Reports

, 19:59 | Cite as

Mindfulness Meditation for Fibromyalgia: Mechanistic and Clinical Considerations

  • Adrienne L. Adler-Neal
  • Fadel ZeidanEmail author
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (S Kolasinski, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Complementary and Alternative Medicine


Purpose of Review

Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread pain and a spectrum of psychological comorbidities, rendering treatment difficult and often a financial burden. Fibromyalgia is a complicated chronic pain condition that requires a multimodal therapeutic approach to optimize treatment efficacy. Thus, it has been postulated that mind-body techniques may prove fruitful in treating fibromyalgia. Mindfulness meditation, a behavioral technique premised on non-reactive sensory awareness, attenuates pain and improves mental health outcomes. However, the impact of mindfulness meditation on fibromyalgia-related outcomes has not been comprehensively characterized. The present review delineates the existing evidence supporting the effectiveness and hypothesized mechanisms of mindfulness meditation in treating fibromyalgia-related outcomes.

Recent Findings

Mindfulness-based interventions premised on cultivating acceptance, non-attachment, and social engagement may be most effective in decreasing fibromyalgia-related pain and psychological symptoms. Mindfulness-based therapies may alleviate fibromyalgia-related outcomes through multiple neural, psychological, and physiological processes.


Mindfulness meditation may provide an effective complementary treatment approach for fibromyalgia patients, especially when combined with other reliable techniques (exercise; cognitive behavioral therapy). However, characterizing the specific analgesic mechanisms supporting mindfulness meditation is a critical step to fostering the clinical validity of this technique. Identification of the specific analgesic mechanisms supporting mindfulness-based pain relief could be utilized to better design behavioral interventions to specifically target fibromyalgia-related outcomes.


Pain Fibromyalgia Mindfulness Meditation fMRI Inflammation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    Helmick CG, Felson DT, Lawrence RC, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part I. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(1):15–25. doi: 10.1002/art.23177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, et al. The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38(1):19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis care & research. 2010;62(5):600–10. doi: 10.1002/acr.20140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia: a clinical review. JAMA. 2014;311(15):1547–55. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.3266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lauche R, Cramer H, Dobos G, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulness-based stress reduction for the fibromyalgia syndrome. J Psychosom Res. 2013;75(6):500–10. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.10.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hauser W, Thieme K, Turk DC. Guidelines on the management of fibromyalgia syndrome—a systematic review. Eur J Pain. 2010;14(1):5–10. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.01.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Busch AJ, Schachter CL, Overend TJ, et al. Exercise for fibromyalgia: a systematic review. J Rheumatol. 2008;35(6):1130–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thieme K, Flor H, Turk DC. Psychological pain treatment in fibromyalgia syndrome: efficacy of operant behavioural and cognitive behavioural treatments. Arthritis research & therapy. 2006;8(4):R121. doi: 10.1186/ar2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beck JS. Cognitive behavior therapy: basics and beyond. 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Butler AC, Chapman JE, Forman EM, et al. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clin Psychol Rev. 2006;26(1):17–31. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.07.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hassett AL, Gevirtz RN. Nonpharmacologic treatment for fibromyalgia: patient education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, relaxation techniques, and complementary and alternative medicine. Rheum Dis Clin N Am. 2009;35(2):393–407. doi: 10.1016/j.rdc.2009.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lazaridou A, Kim J, Cahalan CM, et al. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on brain connectivity supporting catastrophizing in fibromyalgia. Clin J Pain. 2017;33(3):215–21. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sullivan MJL, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychol Assessment. 1995;7(4):524–32. doi: 10.1037//1040-3590.7.4.524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Busch AJ, Webber SC, Richards RS, et al. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2013;12:CD010884. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010884.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Byrne A, Byrne DG. The effect of exercise on depression, anxiety and other mood states: a review. J Psychosom Res. 1993;37(6):565–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walitt B, Fitzcharles MA, Hassett AL, et al. The longitudinal outcome of fibromyalgia: a study of 1555 patients. J Rheumatol. 2011;38(10):2238–46. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.110026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zeidan F, Grant JA, Brown CA, et al. Mindfulness meditation-related pain relief: evidence for unique brain mechanisms in the regulation of pain. Neurosci Lett. 2012;520(2):165–73. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.03.082.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zeidan F, Vago DR. Mindfulness meditation-based pain relief: a mechanistic account. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016;1373(1):114–27. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13153.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    • Lopez-Sola M, Woo CW, Pujol J, et al. Towards a neurophysiological signature for fibromyalgia. Pain. 2017;158(1):34–47. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000707. Well-controlled experimental trial using machine learning techniques to identify a fibromyalgia-associated neural signature that characterizes patients based upon pain-related changes in brain activation. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gracely RH, Petzke F, Wolf JM, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of augmented pain processing in fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(5):1333–43. doi: 10.1002/art.10225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gracely RH, Geisser ME, Giesecke T, et al. Pain catastrophizing and neural responses to pain among persons with fibromyalgia. Brain : a journal of neurology. 2004;127(Pt 4):835–43. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Napadow V, LaCount L, Park K, et al. Intrinsic brain connectivity in fibromyalgia is associated with chronic pain intensity. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62(8):2545–55. doi: 10.1002/art.27497.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schweinhardt P, Kalk N, Wartolowska K, et al. Investigation into the neural correlates of emotional augmentation of clinical pain. NeuroImage. 2008;40(2):759–66. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.12.016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wiech K, Ploner M, Tracey I. Neurocognitive aspects of pain perception. Trends Cogn Sci. 2008;12(8):306–13. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2008.05.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lorenz J, Minoshima S, Casey KL. Keeping pain out of mind: the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in pain modulation. Brain : a journal of neurology. 2003;126(Pt 5):1079–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim H. A dual-subsystem model of the brain’s default network: self-referential processing, memory retrieval processes, and autobiographical memory retrieval. NeuroImage. 2012;61(4):966–77. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.03.025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raichle ME, MacLeod AM, Snyder AZ, et al. A default mode of brain function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(2):676–82. doi: 10.1073/pnas.98.2.676.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Christoff K, Gordon AM, Smallwood J, et al. Experience sampling during fMRI reveals default network and executive system contributions to mind wandering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(21):8719–24. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0900234106.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mouraux A, Diukova A, Lee MC, et al. A multisensory investigation of the functional significance of the “pain matrix”. NeuroImage. 2011;54(3):2237–49. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oshiro Y, Quevedo AS, McHaffie JG, et al. Brain mechanisms supporting discrimination of sensory features of pain: a new model. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2009;29(47):14924–31. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5538-08.2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koyama T, McHaffie JG, Laurienti PJ, et al. The subjective experience of pain: where expectations become reality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(36):12950–5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0408576102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Critchley HD, Wiens S, Rotshtein P, et al. Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7(2):189–95. doi: 10.1038/nn1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Simpson JR Jr, Drevets WC, Snyder AZ, et al. Emotion-induced changes in human medial prefrontal cortex: II. During anticipatory anxiety. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(2):688–93. doi: 10.1073/pnas.98.2.688.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Salomons TV, Johnstone T, Backonja MM, et al. Perceived controllability modulates the neural response to pain. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2004;24(32):7199–203. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1315-04.2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ochsner KN, Gross JJ. The cognitive control of emotion. Trends Cogn Sci. 2005;9(5):242–9. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vogt BA. Pain and emotion interactions in subregions of the cingulate gyrus. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2005;6(7):533–44. doi: 10.1038/nrn1704.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Coghill RC, Sang CN, Maisog JH, et al. Pain intensity processing within the human brain: a bilateral, distributed mechanism. J Neurophysiol. 1999;82(4):1934–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    McBeth J, Silman AJ. The role of psychiatric disorders in fibromyalgia. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2001;3(2):157–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Quintero L, Moreno M, Avila C, et al. Long-lasting delayed hyperalgesia after subchronic swim stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000;67(3):449–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Suarez-Roca H, Silva JA, Arcaya JL, et al. Role of mu-opioid and NMDA receptors in the development and maintenance of repeated swim stress-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Behav Brain Res. 2006;167(2):205–11. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2005.09.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dina OA, Levine JD, Green PG. Enhanced cytokine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle produced by a novel mechanism in rats exposed to unpredictable sound stress. Eur J Pain. 2011;15(8):796–800. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2011.02.005.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wallace DJ, Linker-Israeli M, Hallegua D, et al. Cytokines play an aetiopathogenetic role in fibromyalgia: a hypothesis and pilot study. Rheumatology. 2001;40(7):743–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hernandez ME, Becerril E, Perez M, et al. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in fibromyalgia patients are independent of body mass index. BMC research notes. 2010;3(1):156. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-156.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Iannuccelli C, Di Franco M, Alessandri C, et al. Pathophysiology of fibromyalgia: a comparison with the tension-type headache, a localized pain syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1193:78–83. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05365.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Uceyler N, Hauser W, Sommer C. Systematic review with meta-analysis: cytokines in fibromyalgia syndrome. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:245. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-245.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wang H, Moser M, Schiltenwolf M, et al. Circulating cytokine levels compared to pain in patients with fibromyalgia—a prospective longitudinal study over 6 months. J Rheumatol. 2008;35(7):1366–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dina OA, Levine JD, Green PG. Muscle inflammation induces a protein kinase Cepsilon-dependent chronic-latent muscle pain. The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society. 2008;9(5):457–62. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2008.01.328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Malcangio M, Bowery NG, Flower RJ, et al. Effect of interleukin-1 beta on the release of substance P from rat isolated spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;299(1–3):113–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Felipe C, Herrero JF, O'Brien JA, et al. Altered nociception, analgesia and aggression in mice lacking the receptor for substance P. Nature. 1998;392(6674):394–7. doi: 10.1038/32904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Slavich GM, Way BM, Eisenberger NI, et al. Neural sensitivity to social rejection is associated with inflammatory responses to social stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(33):14817–22. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1009164107.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rosenkranz MA, Busse WW, Johnstone T, et al. Neural circuitry underlying the interaction between emotion and asthma symptom exacerbation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(37):13319–24. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0504365102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kabat-Zinn J, Lipworth L, Burney R. The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. J Behav Med. 1985;8(2):163–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lakhan SE, Schofield KL. Mindfulness-based therapies in the treatment of somatization disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71834. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071834.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sephton SE, Salmon P, Weissbecker I, et al. Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in women with fibromyalgia: results of a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57(1):77–85. doi: 10.1002/art.22478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schmidt S, Grossman P, Schwarzer B, et al. Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2011;152(2):361–9. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.10.043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Balderson BH, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction vs cognitive behavioral therapy or usual care on back pain and functional limitations in adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(12):1240–9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.2323.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Morone NE, Greco CM, Weiner DK. Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study. Pain. 2008;134(3):310–9. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2007.04.038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Morone NE, Greco CM, Moore CG, et al. A mind-body program for older adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(3):329–37. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.8033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Garland EL, Gaylord SA, Palsson O, et al. Therapeutic mechanisms of a mindfulness-based treatment for IBS: effects on visceral sensitivity, catastrophizing, and affective processing of pain sensations. J Behav Med. 2012;35(6):591–602. doi: 10.1007/s10865-011-9391-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goldin P, Ziv M, Jazaieri H, et al. Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction versus aerobic exercise: effects on the self-referential brain network in social anxiety disorder. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:295. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00295.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zeidan F, Martucci KT, Kraft RA, et al. Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014;9(6):751–9. doi: 10.1093/scan/nst041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Miller JJ, Fletcher K, Kabat-Zinn J. Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1995;17(3):192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Goldin PR, Gross JJ. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion. 2010;10(1):83–91. doi: 10.1037/a0018441.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Barnhofer T, Crane C, Hargus E, et al. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: a preliminary study. Behav Res Ther. 2009;47(5):366–73. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.01.019.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Farb NA, Anderson AK, Mayberg H, et al. Minding one’s emotions: mindfulness training alters the neural expression of sadness. Emotion. 2010;10(1):25–33. doi: 10.1037/a0017151.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Paul NA, Stanton SJ, Greeson JM, et al. Psychological and neural mechanisms of trait mindfulness in reducing depression vulnerability. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2013;8(1):56–64. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zeidan F, Johnson SK, Gordon NS, et al. Effects of brief and sham mindfulness meditation on mood and cardiovascular variables. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(8):867–73. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Taren AA, Gianaros PJ, Greco CM, et al. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2015;10(12):1758–68. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv066.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Creswell JD, Pacilio LE, Lindsay EK, et al. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;44:1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.02.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wiech K, Tracey I. The influence of negative emotions on pain: behavioral effects and neural mechanisms. NeuroImage. 2009;47(3):987–94. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.05.059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bushnell MC, Ceko M, Low LA. Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14(7):502–11. doi: 10.1038/nrn3516.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Anheyer D, Haller H, Barth J et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for treating low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2017:1–9. doi: 10.7326/M16-1997.
  73. 73.
    Kabat-Zinn J. An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1982;4(1):33–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goldenberg D, Kaplan KH, Nadeau MG, Brodeur C, Smith S, Schmid CH. A controlled study of a stress-reduction, cognitive-behavioral treatment program in fibromyalgia. J Musculoskelet Pain. 1994;2(2).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cash E, Salmon P, Weissbecker I, et al. Mindfulness meditation alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms in women: results of a randomized clinical trial. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. 2015;49(3):319–30. doi: 10.1007/s12160-014-9665-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Grossman P, Tiefenthaler-Gilmer U, Raysz A, et al. Mindfulness training as an intervention for fibromyalgia: evidence of postintervention and 3-year follow-up benefits in well-being. Psychother Psychosom. 2007;76(4):226–33. doi: 10.1159/000101501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Astin JA, Berman BM, Bausell B, et al. The efficacy of mindfulness meditation plus Qigong movement therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. J Rheumatol. 2003;30(10):2257–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fjorback LO, Arendt M, Ornbol E, et al. Mindfulness therapy for somatization disorder and functional somatic syndromes: randomized trial with one-year follow-up. J Psychosom Res. 2013;74(1):31–40. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.09.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Davis MC, Zautra AJ. An online mindfulness intervention targeting socioemotional regulation in fibromyalgia: results of a randomized controlled trial. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. 2013;46(3):273–84. doi: 10.1007/s12160-013-9513-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Amutio A, Franco C, Perez-Fuentes Mde C, et al. Mindfulness training for reducing anger, anxiety, and depression in fibromyalgia patients. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1572. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    • Van Gordon W, Shonin E, Dunn TJ, et al. Meditation awareness training for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Health Psychol. 2017;22(1):186–206. doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12224. Well-controlled clinical trial demonstrating that civic engagement and non-attachment may mediate meditation-associated improvements in fibromyalgia patients. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Heinrichs M, Baumgartner T, Kirschbaum C, et al. Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54(12):1389–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Glass TA, De Leon CF, Bassuk SS, et al. Social engagement and depressive symptoms in late life: longitudinal findings. Journal of aging and health. 2006;18(4):604–28. doi: 10.1177/0898264306291017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zeidan F, Martucci KT, Kraft RA, et al. Brain mechanisms supporting the modulation of pain by mindfulness meditation. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2011;31(14):5540–8. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5791-10.2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    • Zeidan F, Emerson NM, Farris SR, et al. Mindfulness meditation-based pain relief employs different neural mechanisms than placebo and sham mindfulness meditation-induced analgesia. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2015;35(46):15307–25. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2542-15.2015. Mechanistic study in healthy participants demonstrating that mindfulness meditation may alleviate pain through engaging cognitive reappraisal mechanisms that in turn modulate the transmission of nociceptive information throughout the cortex in a context dependent manner. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brown CA, Jones AK. Meditation experience predicts less negative appraisal of pain: electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of anticipatory neural responses. Pain. 2010;150(3):428–38. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lutz A, McFarlin DR, Perlman DM, et al. Altered anterior insula activation during anticipation and experience of painful stimuli in expert meditators. NeuroImage. 2013;64:538–46. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Grant JA, Rainville P. Pain sensitivity and analgesic effects of mindful states in Zen meditators: a cross-sectional study. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(1):106–14. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31818f52ee.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Grant JA, Courtemanche J, Rainville P. A non-elaborative mental stance and decoupling of executive and pain-related cortices predicts low pain sensitivity in Zen meditators. Pain. 2011;152(1):150–6. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.10.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gard T, Holzel BK, Sack AT, et al. Pain attenuation through mindfulness is associated with decreased cognitive control and increased sensory processing in the brain. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22(11):2692–702. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zeidan F, Johnson SK, Diamond BJ, et al. Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training. Conscious Cogn. 2010;19(2):597–605. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2010.03.014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zeidan F, Gordon NS, Merchant J, et al. The effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on experimentally induced pain. The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society. 2010;11(3):199–209. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2009.07.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zeidan F, Adler-Neal AL, Wells RE, et al. Mindfulness-meditation-based pain relief is not mediated by endogenous opioids. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2016;36(11):3391–7. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4328-15.2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Crick F. Function of the thalamic reticular complex: the searchlight hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81(14):4586–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    McAlonan K, Cavanaugh J, Wurtz RH. Attentional modulation of thalamic reticular neurons. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2006;26(16):4444–50. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5602-05.2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Creswell JD, Taren AA, Lindsay EK, et al. Alterations in resting-state functional connectivity link mindfulness meditation with reduced interleukin-6: a randomized controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;80(1):53–61. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.01.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, et al. Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosom Med. 2003;65(4):564–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Creswell JD, Irwin MR, Burklund LJ, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction training reduces loneliness and pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults: a small randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26(7):1095–101. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2012.07.006.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kabat-Zinn J, Wheeler E, Light T, et al. Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA). Psychosom Med. 1998;60(5):625–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Overman CL, Kool MB, Da Silva JA, et al. The prevalence of severe fatigue in rheumatic diseases: an international study. Clin Rheumatol. 2016;35(2):409–15. doi: 10.1007/s10067-015-3035-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wicksell RK, Kemani M, Jensen K, et al. Acceptance and commitment therapy for fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Pain. 2013;17(4):599–611. doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2012.00224.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Carson JW, Carson KM, Jones KD, et al. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the Yoga of Awareness program in the management of fibromyalgia. Pain. 2010;151(2):530–9. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.08.020.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Field T, Diego M, Cullen C, et al. Fibromyalgia pain and substance P decrease and sleep improves after massage therapy. Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases. 2002;8(2):72–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hassett AL, Radvanski DC, Vaschillo EG, et al. A pilot study of the efficacy of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in patients with fibromyalgia. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback. 2007;32(1):1–10. doi: 10.1007/s10484-006-9028-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Michalsen A, Grossman P, Acil A, et al. Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among distressed women as a consequence of a three-month intensive yoga program. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2005;11(12):CR555–61.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zucker TL, Samuelson KW, Muench F, et al. The effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback on heart rate variability and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a pilot study. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback. 2009;34(2):135–43. doi: 10.1007/s10484-009-9085-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Diego M, et al. Cortisol decreases and serotonin and dopamine increase following massage therapy. The International journal of neuroscience. 2005;115(10):1397–413. doi: 10.1080/00207450590956459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schmid AA, Van Puymbroeck M, Koceja DM. Effect of a 12-week yoga intervention on fear of falling and balance in older adults: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(4):576–83. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2009.12.018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Raub JA. Psychophysiologic effects of Hatha Yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature review. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(6):797–812. doi: 10.1089/10755530260511810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Moonaz SH, Bingham CO 3rd, Wissow L, et al. Yoga in sedentary adults with arthritis: effects of a randomized controlled pragmatic trial. J Rheumatol. 2015;42(7):1194–202. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.141129.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology and AnatomyWake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

Personalised recommendations