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Imaging of Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease

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Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is a common and clinically heterogeneous form of arthritis caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals in articular tissues. The diagnosis of CPPD is supported by the presence of radiographic chondrocalcinosis; yet, conventional radiography detects only about 40 % of clinically important CPPD. Here, we critically review the recent literature on imaging in CPPD. New studies inform our use of conventional radiographic screening methodologies for CPPD and provide additional evidence for the utility of diagnostic ultrasound. Recent work also highlights the polyarticular nature of CPPD, its association with tissue damage, and the high prevalence of tendon involvement. While dual energy CT and diffraction-enhanced synchrotron imaging remain research tools, they present potential avenues for improved visualization of CPP deposits. Advances in imaging in CPPD will increase diagnostic accuracy and eventually result in better management of this common form of arthritis.

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Jennifer Miksanek and Ann K. Rosenthal declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the authors.

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Correspondence to Ann K. Rosenthal.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Crystal Arthritis

Supported by a grant from the National VA Research Service (AKR 101BX000812).

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Miksanek, J., Rosenthal, A.K. Imaging of Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease. Curr Rheumatol Rep 17, 20 (2015).

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