Rotator Cuff Biology and Biomechanics: a Review of Normal and Pathological Conditions
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The glenohumeral joint is a complex anatomic structure commonly affected by injury such as tendinopathy and rotator cuff tears. This review presents an up-to-date overview of research on tendon biology and structure, shoulder joint motion and stability, tendon healing, and current and potential future repair strategies. Recent studies have provided information demonstrating the serious impact on uninjured tissues after a rotator cuff tear or other cause of altered shoulder joint mechanics. Another major focus of recent research is biological augmentation of rotator cuff repair with the goal of successfully reinstating normal tendon-to-bone structure. To effectively treat shoulder pathologies, clinicians need to understand normal tendon biology, the healing process and environment, and whole shoulder stability and function.
KeywordsRotator cuff Tendon Shoulder Biomechanics Orthopedic surgery Overuse injury Tendinopathy
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Julianne Huegel and Alexis A. Williams declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Louis J. Soslowsky declares the receipt of grants from DJO, Orthofix, and Amniox, outside of the submitted work.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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