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Current Rheumatology Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 5, pp 356–364 | Cite as

Vitamin D: More than just affecting calcium and bone

  • Roland Staud
Article

Abstract

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid that is essential for main-taining normal calcium metabolism. In vitamin D deficiency, calcium absorption is insufficient and cannot satisfy the body’s needs. Consequently, parathyroid hormone produc-tion increases and calcium is mobilized from bones and reabsorbed in the kidneys to maintain normal serum calcium levels—a condition defined as secondary hyper-parathyroidism. Most organs, including the gut, brain, heart, pancreas, skin, kidneys, and immune system have receptors for 1,25 (OH)vitamin D. Furthermore, all of these organs have the capacity to synthesize 1,25 (OH)vitamin D from vitamin D. Extensive research suggests that vitamin D deficiency is common and represents a global health prob-lem. Clinical consequences related to low vitamin D levels include not only osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and rickets, but also neuro-muscular dysfunction and fractures. Falls related to neuromuscular dysfunction lead to 40% of all nursing home admissions and are the largest single cause of injury-related deaths in elderly people. About one-third of all persons 65 and older fall at least once a year, resulting in more than 1.5 million emergency room treatments and more than 300,000 hospitalizations. Falls cause more than 11,000 deaths per year, most of them in elderly patients ??????75 years) who suffer hip fractures. It is well established that vitamin D deficiency not only has serious conse-quences for bone health, but also for other organ systems. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D supplementa-tion reduces the number of fractures and directly improves neuromuscular function, thus helping to prevent falls and subsequent fractures. In addition, vitamin D appears to have other important functions as a regulator of cell differ-entiation and cell growth.

Keywords

Multiple Sclerosis Rickets Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Osteomalacia Recommended Daily Allowance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Current Science Inc 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Staud
    • 1
  1. 1.University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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