Current Psychiatry Reports

, 21:126 | Cite as

Pre- and Paralinguistic Vocal Production in ASD: Birth Through School Age

  • Lisa D. YankowitzEmail author
  • Robert T. Schultz
  • Julia Parish-Morris
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ES Brodkin, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Autism Spectrum Disorders


Purpose of Review

We review what is known about how pre-linguistic vocal differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) unfold across development and consider whether vocalization features can serve as useful diagnostic indicators.

Recent Findings

Differences in the frequency and acoustic quality of several vocalization types (e.g., babbles and cries) during the first year of life are associated with later ASD diagnosis. Paralinguistic features (e.g., prosody) measured during early and middle childhood can accurately classify current ASD diagnosis using cross-validated machine learning approaches.


Pre-linguistic vocalization differences in infants are promising behavioral markers of later ASD diagnosis. In older children, paralinguistic features hold promise as diagnostic indicators as well as clinical targets. Future research efforts should focus on (1) bridging the gap between basic research and practical implementations of early vocalization-based risk assessment tools, and (2) demonstrating the clinical impact of targeting atypical vocalization features during social skill interventions for older children.


Autism Paralinguistics Prosody Early diagnosis Speech production Acoustic properties 


Funding Information

This work supported by the Autism Science Foundation ASF #19-006 (grantee: Yankowitz), and NIDCD R03DC017944, “Infant Vocalizations as Early Markers of Autism Spectrum Disorder” (PI: Parish-Morris).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Neuro Child. 1943;2:217–50.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Asperger H. Die “Autistischen Psychopathen” im Kindesalter. Arch Für Psychiatr Nervenkrankh. 1944;117:76–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McCann J, Peppé S. Prosody in autism spectrum disorders: a critical review. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2003;38:325–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    •• Fusaroli R, Lambrechts A, Bang D, Bowler DM, Gaigg SB. Is voice a marker for autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Autism Res. 2017;10:384–407. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates significant differences in pitch and pitch range, and calls for systematic study of multivariate prediction based on high accuracy in studies conducted so far. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, et al. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Generic: A Standard Measure of Social and Communication Deficits Associated with the Spectrum of Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30:205–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lord C, Rutter M, Couteur AL. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24:659–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cutler A, Dahan D, van Donselaar W. Prosody in the Comprehension of Spoken Language: A Literature Review. Lang Speech. 1997;40:141–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    • Redford MA, Kapatsinski V, Cornell-Fabiano J. Lay Listener Classification and Evaluation of Typical and Atypical Children’s Speech. Lang Speech. 2018;61:277–302. This study demonstrates that lay listeners are sensitive to speech features in ASD, which contribute to perceptions of disorder and likeability. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    • Patel SP, Kim JH, Larson CR, Losh M. Mechanisms of voice control related to prosody in autism spectrum disorder and first-degree relatives. Autism Res. 2019;12(8):1192–210. This study suggests that atypical audio-vocal integration may be a genetically-based mechanism of prosodic differences in ASD. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marchi E, Schuller BW, Baron-Cohen S, Golan O, Bölte S, Arora P, et al. Typicality and emotion in the voice of children with autism spectrum condition: evidence across three languages. INTERSPEECH. 2015.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asgari M, Bayestehtashk A, Shafran I. Robust and Accurate Features for Detecting and Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders. Lyon: Proc Interspeech; 2013.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bonneh YS, Levanon Y, Dean-Pardo O, Lossos L, Adini Y. Abnormal speech spectrum and increased pitch variability in young autistic children. Front Hum Neurosci. 2011;4:237.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Santos JF, Brosh N, Falk TH, Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson SE, Roberts W, et al. Very early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorders based on acoustic analysis of pre-verbal vocalizations of 18-month old toddlers. 2013 IEEE Int Conf Acoust Speech Signal Process. 2013. p. 7567–71.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oller DK, Niyogi P, Gray S, Richards JA, Gilkerson J, Xu D, et al. Automated vocal analysis of naturalistic recordings from children with autism, language delay, and typical development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13354–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Herlihy L, Knoch K, Vibert B, Fein D. Parents’ first concerns about toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: Effect of sibling status. Autism Int J Res Pract. 2015;19:20–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Granpeesheh D, Dixon DR, Tarbox J, Kaplan AM, Wilke AE. The effects of age and treatment intensity on behavioral intervention outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2009;3:1014–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zwaigenbaum L, Thurm A, Stone W, Baranek G, Bryson S, Iverson J, et al. Studying the Emergence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in High-risk Infants: Methodological and Practical Issues. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:466–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2010 Principal Investigators, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Surveill Summ Wash DC 2002. 2014;63:1–21.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pierce K, Gazestani VH, Bacon E, Barnes CC, Cha D, Nalabolu S, et al. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Stability of the Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Phenotype in the General Population Starting at 12 Months. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173:578–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Swanson MR, Shen MD, Wolff JJ, Boyd B, Clements M, Rehg J, et al. Naturalistic Language Recordings Reveal “Hypervocal” Infants at High Familial Risk for Autism. Child Dev. 2018;89:e60–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Plumb AM, Wetherby AM. Vocalization Development in Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2013;56:721–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    • Roche L, Zhang D, Bartl-Pokorny KD, Pokorny FB, Schuller BW, Esposito G, et al. Early Vocal Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rett Syndrome, and Fragile X Syndrome: Insights from Studies Using Retrospective Video Analysis. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2018;2:49–61. This article reviews studies of infant vocalizations gathered through retrospective home videos. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garrido D, Petrova D, Watson LR, Garcia-Retamero R, Carballo G. Language and motor skills in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analytic review. Autism Res. 2017;10:1737–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ozonoff S, Young GS, Belding A, Hill M, Hill A, Hutman T, et al. The broader autism phenotype in infancy: when does it emerge? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;53(53:398):398–407.e2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leonard HC, Bedford R, Pickles A, Hill EL. Predicting the rate of language development from early motor skills in at-risk infants who develop autism spectrum disorder. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2015;13–14 Complete:15–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kwok EYL, Brown HM, Smyth RE, Oram CJ. Meta-analysis of receptive and expressive language skills in autism spectrum disorder. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2015;9:202–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Warlaumont AS, Richards JA, Gilkerson J, Oller DK. A Social Feedback Loop for Speech Development and Its Reduction in Autism. Psychol Sci. 2014;25:1314–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sullivan K, Sharda M, Greenson J, Dawson G, Singh NC. A novel method for assessing the development of speech motor function in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Front Integr Neurosci. 2013;7.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee K-S, Shin YJ, Yoo H-J, Lee GJ, Ryu J, Son O, et al. Vocalization of Emotional and Social Expressions in Korean-Speaking Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Developmental Delay. Yonsei Med J. 2018;59:425–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Northrup JB, Iverson JM. Vocal Coordination During Early Parent-Infant Interactions Predicts Language Outcome in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Infancy Off J Int Soc Infant Stud. 2015;20:523–47.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    •• Pokorny FB, Schuller B, Marschik PB, Brueckner R, Nyström P, Cummins N, et al. Earlier Identification of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Automatic Vocalisation-Based Approach. ISCA. 2017:309–13. This small study demonstrates that machine learning applied to a standardized acoustic feature set from vocalizations collected at 10 months can accurately predict diagnostic outcome at age 3. Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schoen E, Paul R, Chawarska K. Phonology and vocal behavior in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Res. 2011;4:177–88.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chenausky K, Nelson C, Tager-Flusberg H. Vocalization Rate and Consonant Production in Toddlers at High and Low Risk for Autism. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2017;60:865–76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Patten E, Belardi K, Baranek GT, Watson LR, Labban JD, Oller DK. Vocal Patterns in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Canonical Babbling Status and Vocalization Frequency. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44:2413–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Paul R, Fuerst Y, Ramsay G, Chawarska K, Klin A. Out of the mouths of babes: vocal production in infant siblings of children with ASD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:588–98.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Warren S, Gilkerson JA, Richards J, Oller DK, Xu D, Yapanel U, et al. What Automated Vocal Analysis Reveals About the Vocal Production and Language Learning Environment of Young Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;40:555–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Winder BM, Wozniak RH, Parladé MV, Iverson JM. Spontaneous Initiation of Communication in Infants at Low and Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Dev Psychol. 2013;49:1931–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chericoni N, de Brito WD, Costanzo V, Diniz-Gonçalves A, Leitgel Gille M, Parlato E, et al. Pre-linguistic Vocal Trajectories at 6–18 Months of Age As Early Markers of Autism. Front Psychol. 2016;7.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Garrido D, Watson LR, Carballo G, Garcia-Retamero R, Crais ER. Infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorder: Patterns of vocalizations at 14 months. Autism Res. 2017;10:1372–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wetherby AM, Woods J, Allen L, Cleary J, Dickinson H, Lord C. Early Indicators of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Second Year of Life. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004;34:473–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sheinkopf SJ, Mundy P, Oller DK, Steffens M. Vocal Atypicalities of Preverbal Autistic Children. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30:345–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gabrielsen TP, Farley M, Speer L, Villalobos M, Baker CN, Miller J. Identifying Autism in a Brief Observation. Pediatrics. 2015;135:e330–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Talbott MR, Nelson CA, Tager-Flusberg H. Maternal Vocal Feedback to 9-Month-Old Infant Siblings of Children with ASD. Autism Res Off J Int Soc Autism Res. 2016;9:460–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schoen E, Paul R, Chawarska K. Vocal productions in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Speech Sound Disord Child San Diego Plur Publ Inc. 2009:181–204.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ozonoff S, Iosif A-M, Baguio F, Cook IC, Hill MM, Hutman T, et al. A Prospective Study of the Emergence of Early Behavioral Signs of Autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49:256–266.e2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shumway S, Wetherby AM. Communicative Acts of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Second Year of Life. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2009;52:1139–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Iverson JM, Wozniak RH. Variation in Vocal-Motor Development in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:158–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Landa RJ, Gross AL, Stuart EA, Faherty A. Developmental Trajectories in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders: The First 3 Years. Child Dev. 2013;84:429–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Landa RJ, Holman KC, Garrett-Mayer E. Social and Communication Development in Toddlers With Early and Later Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:853–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Werner E, Dawson G. Validation of the Phenomenon of Autistic Regression Using Home Videotapes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:889–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wetherby AM, Watt N, Morgan L, Shumway S. Social Communication Profiles of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Late in the Second Year of Life. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:960–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    •• McDaniel J, D’Ambrose Slaboch K, Yoder P. A meta-analysis of the association between vocalizations and expressive language in children with autism spectrum disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2018;72:202–13. This meta-analysis demonstrates that early vocalizations are predictive of expressive language ability in ASD, suggesting they may be both a marker and an intervention target. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    •• Esposito G, Hiroi N, Scattoni ML. Cry, Baby, Cry: Expression of Distress As a Biomarker and Modulator in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017;20:498–503. This article reviews a line of evidence from humans and mouse models suggesting atypical cry in ASD, which elicits altered response from caregivers. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bornstein M, Costlow K, Truzzi A, Esposito G. Categorizing the cries of infants with ASD versus typically developing infants: A study of adult accuracy and reaction time. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2016;31:66–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Esposito G, Nakazawa J, Venuti P, Bornstein MH. Perceptions of distress in young children with autism compared to typically developing children: a cultural comparison between Japan and Italy. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33:1059–67.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Esposito G, Nakazawa J, Venuti P, Bornstein MH. Componential Deconstruction of Infant Distress Vocalizations via Tree-Based Models: A Study of Cry in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:2717–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Esposito G. Rostagno M del C, Venuti P, Haltigan JD, Messinger DS. Brief Report: Atypical Expression of Distress During the Separation Phase of the Strange Situation Procedure in Infant Siblings at High Risk for ASD. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44:975–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Esposito G, Valenzi S, Islam T, Bornstein MH. Three physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers’ to vocalizations of typically developing infants and infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2015;0:43–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Esposito G, Venuti P. Developmental changes in the fundamental frequency (f0) of infants’ cries: a study of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Early Child Dev Care. 2010;180:1093–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Esposito G, Venuti P. Understanding early communication signals in autism: a study of the perception of infants’ cry. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2010;54:216–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ozturk Y, Bizzego A, Esposito G, Furlanello C, Venuti P. Physiological and self-report responses of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder to children crying. Res Dev Disabil. 2018;73:31–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Venuti P, Caria A, Esposito G, De Pisapia N, Bornstein MH, de Falco S. Differential brain responses to cries of infants with autistic disorder and typical development: An fMRI study. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33:2255–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sheinkopf SJ, Iverson JM, Rinaldi ML, Lester BM. Atypical Cry Acoustics in 6-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res. 2012;5:331–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Esposito G, Venuti P. Comparative Analysis of Crying in Children with Autism, Developmental Delays, and Typical Development. Focus Autism Dev Disabil. 2009;24:240–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    •• English MS, Tenenbaum EJ, Levine TP, Lester BM, Sheinkopf SJ. Perception of Cry Characteristics in 1-Month-Old Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019;49:834–44. This small study suggests that cry may be an extremely early-emerging bio-behavioral marker of ASD. Cries of 1-month-old infants later diagnosed with ASD were rated as more distressing, atypical, and indicative of pain than cries of TD infants. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Esposito G, Venuti P. How is crying perceived in children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2008;2:371–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Esposito G, Venuti P, Bornstein MH. Assessment of distress in young children: A comparison of autistic disorder, developmental delay, and typical development. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;4:1510–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brisson J, Martel K, Serres J, Sirois S, Adrien J-L. Acoustic analysis of oral productions of infants later diagnosed with autism and their mother. Infant Ment Health J. 2014;35:285–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Eyben F, Scherer KR, Schuller BW, Sundberg J, André E, Busso C, et al. The Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (GeMAPS) for Voice Research and Affective Computing. IEEE Trans Affect Comput. 2016;7:190–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Peppé S, McCann J. Assessing intonation and prosody in children with atypical language development: the PEPS-C test and the revised version. Clin Linguist Phon. 2003;17:345–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Filipe MG, Frota S, Castro SL, Vicente SG. Atypical Prosody in Asperger Syndrome: Perceptual and Acoustic Measurements. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44:1972–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lyakso E, Frolova O, Grigorev A. A Comparison of Acoustic Features of Speech of Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. In: Ronzhin A, Potapova R, Németh G, editors. Speech Comput. Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 43–50.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Parish-Morris J, Liberman M, Ryant N, Cieri C, Bateman L, Ferguson E, et al. Exploring Autism Spectrum Disorders Using HLT. In: Proc Third Workshop Comput Linguist Clin Psychol. San Diego: Association for Computational Linguistics; 2016. p. 74–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dahlgren S, Sandberg AD, Strömbergsson S, Wenhov L, Råstam M, Nettelbladt U. Prosodic traits in speech produced by children with autism spectrum disorders – Perceptual and acoustic measurements. Autism Dev Lang Impair. 2018;3:2396941518764527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nakai Y, Takashima R, Takiguchi T, Takada S. Speech intonation in children with autism spectrum disorder. Brain and Development. 2014;36:516–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    DePape A-MR, Chen A, Hall GB, Trainor LJ. Use of Prosody and Information Structure in High Functioning Adults with Autism in Relation to Language Ability. Front Psychol. 2012;3.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lyakso E, Frolova O, Grigorev A. Perception and Acoustic Features of Speech of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. In: Karpov A, Potapova R, Mporas I, editors. Speech Comput. Springer International Publishing; 2017. p. 602–12.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    • Wiklund M, et al. J Pragmat. 2016;94:76–97. This naturalistic conversational analysis implicates paralinguistic speech features (prosody and voice quality) in conversational difficulty in ASD. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stathopoulos E, Huber J, Sussman J. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice Across the Life Span: Measures From Individuals 4-93 Years of Age. J Speech Lang Hear Res JSLHR. 2011;54:1011–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kjellmer L, Fernell E, Gillberg C, Norrelgen F. Speech and language profiles in 4- to 6-year-old children with early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018;14:2415–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    McAlpine A, Plexico LW, Plumb AM, Cleary J. Prosody in Young Verbal Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Contemp Issues Commun Sci Disord Rockv. 2014;41:120–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shriberg L, Kwiatkowski J, Rasmussen CR, Lof GL, Miller J. The Prosody-Voice Screening Profile (PVSP): Psychometric Data and Reference Information For Children Phonology Project Technical Report No. 1. 1997.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tanaka H, Sakti S, Neubig G, Toda T, Nakamura S. Linguistic and Acoustic Features for Automatic Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children’s Narrative. In: Proc Workshop Comput Linguist Clin Psychol Linguist Signal Clin Real. Baltimore: Association for Computational Linguistics; 2014. p. 88–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kakihara Y, Takiguchi T, Ariki Y, Nakai Y, Takada S. Investigation of Classification Using Pitch Features for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children. Am J Signal Process. 2015;5:1–5.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schuller B, Steidl S, Batliner A, Vinciarelli A, Scherer K, Ringeval F, et al. The INTERSPEECH 2013 computational paralinguistics challenge: social signals, conflict, emotion, autism. 2013.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Baird A, Amiriparian S, Cummins N, Alcorn AM, Batliner A, Pugachevskiy S, et al. Automatic Classification of Autistic Child Vocalisations: A Novel Database and Results. Interspeech 2017. ISCA; 2017. p. 849–53.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Constantino J, Gruber C. The Social Responsiveness Scale Manual, Second Edition (SRS-2). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services; 2012.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ringeval F, Marchi E, Grossard C, Xavier J, Chetouani M, Cohen D, et al. Automatic Analysis of Typical and Atypical Encoding of Spontaneous Emotion in the Voice of Children. Proc INTERSPEECH 2016 17th Annu Conf Int Speech Commun Assoc ISCA. San Francisco, CA, United States; 2016. p. 1210–4.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric Association, editor. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Deng J, Cummins N, Schmitt M, Qian K, Ringeval F, Schuller B. Speech-based Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Condition by Generative Adversarial Network Representations. Londres: 7th Int Digit Health Conf; 2017. p. 53–7.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    • Schmitt M, Marchi E, Ringeval F, Schuller B. Towards Cross-lingual Automatic Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Condition in Children’s Voices. Speech Commun 12 ITG Symp. 2016. p. 1–5. This machine learning classification study finds that across several languages, acoustic features can accurately classify ASD diagnosis when the model is trained on only speakers of the same language. However, model performance dramatically decreases when trained on speakers of a different language. Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cho S, Liberman M, Ryant N, Cola M, Schultz RT, Parish-Morris J. Automatic detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children using acoustic and text features from brief natural conversations. Proc Interspeech. Graz, Austria; 2019.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    • Nakai Y, Takiguchi T, Matsui G, Yamaoka N, Takada S. Detecting Abnormal Word Utterances in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Machine-Learning-Based Voice Analysis Versus Speech Therapists. Percept Mot Skills. 2017;124:961–73. This study represents a first step toward evaluating how automatic speech-based diagnostic classifiers perform compared to professionals. Machine learning performed slightly better than speech language pathologists, who were provided with an extremely limited dataset (single word utterances). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Xu D, Yapanel U. Gray S. LENA Found: Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children’s natural home environment; 2009.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jones RM, Plesa Skwerer D, Pawar R, Hamo A, Carberry C, Ajodan EL, et al. How effective is LENA in detecting speech vocalizations and language produced by children and adolescents with ASD in different contexts? Autism Res Off J Int Soc Autism Res. 2019;12:628–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa D. Yankowitz
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Robert T. Schultz
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Julia Parish-Morris
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Autism ResearchChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations