A Review on the General Stability of Mood Disorder Diagnoses Along the Lifetime
Purpose of Review
The purpose of this review is to review the most recent literature regarding diagnostic stability of mood disorders, focusing on epidemiological, clinical-psychopathological, and neurobiological data for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders.
Unipolar depression follows a chronic course in at least half of all cases and presents a considerable diagnostic stability across all age ranges. Studies using latent class analysis are allowing improved profiling of depressive subtypes and assessment of their prevalence. Advances have been made in our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of depression, with data highlighting the roles of amyloid deposits, the ApoE4 allele, and atrophy of the anterior hippocampus or frontal cortex. The diagnostic instability of bipolar disorder is manifest in the early years, seen in both the extent of diagnostic delay and the high rate of diagnostic conversion from unipolar depression. Regarding disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, we have little data to date, but those which exist indicate a high rate of comorbidity and minimal diagnostic stability for this disorder.
Diagnostic stability varies substantially among mood disorders, which would be related to the validity of current diagnostic categories and our diagnostic accuracy.
KeywordsDiagnosis stability Mood disorders Bipolar disorder Depressive disorder Latent class analysis Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder Dementia
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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