Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A Current Review

Abstract

The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

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Conflict of Interest

Daniel R. Rosell has received support for travel and payment from writing or reviewing manuscript from the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Shira E. Futterman has received support from a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health awarded to LJS.

Antonia McMaster has received a support from a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health awarded to LJS.

Larry J. Siever has received grants and travel support from the National Institute of Mental Health and the Department of Veterans Affairs. He also received travel support from the Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers. Dr. Siever also has receive payment for writing or reviewing manuscripts from the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers, and Mount Sinai.

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Correspondence to Larry J. Siever.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Personality Disorders

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Rosell, D.R., Futterman, S.E., McMaster, A. et al. Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A Current Review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 16, 452 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-014-0452-1

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Keywords

  • Schizotypal
  • Schizophrenia
  • Personality disorder
  • Frontal lobe
  • Temporal lobe
  • Dopamine
  • Working memory
  • Cognition
  • Social cognition
  • Affect processing
  • Magical thinking
  • Perceptual aberration
  • Suspiciousness
  • Paranoia
  • Social anhedonia