Advertisement

Pediatric Feeding and Eating Disorders: Current State of Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Nichole R. Kelly
  • Lisa M. Shank
  • Jennifer L. Bakalar
  • Marian Tanofsky-Kraff
Eating Disorders (AS Kaplan, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Eating Disorders

Abstract

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders now recognizes six primary feeding and eating disorders including pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. Guided by research from the past 3 years, the current review outlines diagnostic criteria for each disorder, their clinical correlates and treatment options. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria will likely help to improve treatment outcomes and prognosis. Nevertheless, several concerns remain regarding the validity of current diagnostic criteria for youth, including the clinical relevance of the size and frequency of binge eating episodes. Additionally, the lack of randomized controlled trials has led to an overreliance on data from quasi-experimental studies, case series and single case studies that impede development of strong clinical recommendations for treating feeding and eating disorders. Recommendations for future research include identifying empirically supported treatments and prevention programs focused on early markers of pediatric feeding and eating concerns.

Keywords

Pediatric Child Adolescent Eating disorder Feeding disorder Binge eating Loss of control eating Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Pica Rumination Avoidant/restrictive food intake Compensatory behavior Regurgitation Weight Overweight Obesity 

Notes

Disclaimer

The opinions and assertions expressed herein are those of the authors and are not to be construed as reflecting the views of the U.S. Public Health Service, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, or the U.S. Department of Defense.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Nichole R. Kelly, Lisa M. Shank, Jennifer L. Bakalar and Marian Tanofsky-Kraff declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Le Grange D, Swanson SA, Crow SJ, Merikangas KR. Eating disorder not otherwise specified presentation in the US population. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45:711–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.••
    Allen KL, Byrne SM, Oddy WH, Crosby RD. DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescents: prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents. J Abnorm Psychol. 2013;122:720–32. Using self-report questionnaires, this study evaluated the prevalence, correlates and course of eating disorders using the recently modified DSM criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent boys and girls. Data from this paper highlight the increase in eating disorder prevalence using the new diagnostic criteria (particularly for girls), as well as the significant diagnostic cross-over between BED and BN and generally low diagnostic stability for all eating disorders.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Uher R, Rutter M. Classification of feeding and eating disorders: review of evidence and proposals for ICD-11. World Psychiatry. 2012;11:80–92.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bryant-Waugh R, Markham L, Kreipe RE, Walsh BT. Feeding and eating disorders in childhood. Int J Eat Disord. 2010;43:98–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tack J, Blondeau K, Boecxstaens V, Rommel N. Review article: the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and management of rumination syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;33:782–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lucarelli L, Cimino S, D'Olimpio F, Ammaniti M. Feeding disorders of early childhood: an empirical study of diagnostic subtypes. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:147–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Williams DE, McAdam D. Assessment, behavioral treatment, and prevention of pica: clinical guidelines and recommendations for practitioners. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33:2050–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rashid F, Davies L, Iftikhar SY. Magnetised intragastric foreign body collection and autism: an advice for carers and literature review. Autism. 2010;14:139–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsona JL, Belvaa B, Hattiera MA, Matsonb ML. Pica in persons with developmental disabilities: characteristics, diagnosis, and assessment. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;5:1459–64.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boybeyi O, Albayrak M, Aslan MK, Soyer T. Colonic lithobezoar: a rare cause of partial intestinal obstruction. Turk J Pediatr. 2013;55:104–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chatzimavroudis G, Christopoulos P, Atmatzidis S, Papadakis G, Nalbanti P, Papaziogas B, et al. Pica: an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain in children. Indian J Pediatr. 2011;78:886–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.•
    Davis AM, Bruce A, Cocjin J, Mousa H, Hyman P. Empirically supported treatments for feeding difficulties in young children. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2010;12:189–94. This review outlines the etiology, clinical correlates and empirically supported behavioral treatment options for significant pediatric feeding concerns (threshold and subthreshold).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rajindrajith S, Devanarayana NM, Crispus Perera BJ. Rumination syndrome in children and adolescents: a school survey assessing prevalence and symptomatology. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:163.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Altepeter T, Annes J, Meller J. Foam bezoar: resection of perforated terminal ileum in a 17-year-old with sickle β+ thalassemia and pica. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:E31–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    O'Callaghan ET, Gold JI. Pica in children with sickle cell disease: two case reports. J Pediatr Nurs. 2012;27:e65–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Green AD, Alioto A, Mousa H, Di Lorenzo C. Severe pediatric rumination syndrome: successful interdisciplinary inpatient management. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;52:414–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pinhas L, Morris A, Crosby RD, Katzman DK. Incidence and age-specific presentation of restrictive eating disorders in children: a Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165:895–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zganjer V, Zganjer M, Cizmić A, Pajid A, Zupancić B. Suicide attempt by swallowing sponge or pica disorder: a case report. Acta Med (Hradec Kralove). 2011;54:91–3.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bryant-Waugh R. Feeding and eating disorders in children. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013;26:537–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lang R, Mulloy A, Giesbers S, Pfeiffer B, Delaune E, Didden R, et al. Behavioral interventions for rumination and operant vomiting in individuals with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32:2193–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharp WG, Jaquess DL, Morton JF, Herzinger CV. Pediatric feeding disorders: a quantitative synthesis of treatment outcomes. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2010;13:348–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jones CJ, Bryant-Waugh R. Development and pilot of a group skills-and-support intervention for mothers of children with feeding problems. Appetite. 2012;58:450–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gueron-Sela N, Atzaba-Poria N, Meiri G, Yerushalmi B. Maternal worries about child underweight mediate and moderate the relationship between child feeding disorders and mother-child feeding interactions. J Pediatr Psychol. 2011;36:827–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Micali N, Simonoff E, Stahl D, Treasure J. Maternal eating disorders and infant feeding difficulties: maternal and child mediators in a longitudinal general population study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:800–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hergüner S, Hergüner AS. Pica in a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and successful treatment with methylphenidate. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:1155–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blondeau K, Boecxstaens V, Rommel N, Farré R, Depeyper S, Holvoet L, et al. Baclofen improves symptoms and reduces postprandial flow events in patients with rumination and supragastric belching. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10:379–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Attia E, Becker AE, Bryant-Waugh R, Hoek HW, Kreipe RE, Marcus MD, et al. Feeding and eating disorders in DSM-5. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170:1237–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smink FR, van Hoeken D, Hoek HW. Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012;14:406–14.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Buhren K, Schwarte R, Fluck F, Timmesfeld N, Krei M, Egberts K, et al. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in female adolescents with first-onset anorexia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013;22:39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Magallon-Neri E, Gonzalez E, Canalda G, Forns M, De La Fuente JE, Martinez E, et al. Prevalence and severity of categorical and dimensional personality disorders in adolescents with eating disorders. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013. doi: 10.1002/erv.2268.
  33. 33.
    Gaudio S, Di Ciommo V. Prevalence of personality disorders and their clinical correlates in outpatient adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Psychosom Med. 2011;73:769–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Norrington A, Stanley R, Tremlett M, Birrell G. Medical management of acute severe anorexia nervosa. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2012;97:48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Misra M, Klibanski A. Neuroendocrine consequences of anorexia nervosa in adolescents. Endocr Dev. 2010;17:197–214.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Misra M, Klibanski A. Bone metabolism in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011;34:324–32.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Faje AT, Fazeli PK, Miller KK, Katzman DK, Ebrahimi S, Lee H, et al. Fracture risk and areal bone mineral density in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2014. doi: 10.1002/eat.22248.
  38. 38.
    Casiero D, Frishman WH. Cardiovascular complications of eating disorders. Cardiol Rev. 2006;14:227–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DiVasta AD, Walls CE, Feldman HA, Quach AE, Woods ER, Gordon CM, et al. Malnutrition and hemodynamic status in adolescents hospitalized for anorexia nervosa. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164:706–13.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Arcelus J, Mitchell AJ, Wales J, Nielsen S. Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68:724–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Franko DL, Keshaviah A, Eddy K, Krishna M, Davis MC, Keel PK, et al. A longitudinal investigation of mortality in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170:917–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brown TA, Keel PK. Current and emerging directions in the treatment of eating disorders. Subst Abuse. 2012;6:33–61.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lock J. Evaluation of family treatment models for eating disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatr. 2011;24:274–9.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith A, Cook-Cottone C. A review of family therapy as an effective intervention for anorexia nervosa in adolescents. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2011;18:323–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Couturier J, Isserlin L, Lock J. Family-based treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: a dissemination study. Eat Disord. 2010;18:199–209.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.••
    Lock J, Le Grange D, Agras WS, Moye A, Bryson SW, Jo B. Randomized clinical trial comparing family-based treatment with adolescent-focused individual therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:1025–32. This study highlights the relative long-term efficacy of family-based therapy for adolescents with AN in terms of percentage of girls in full remission (i.e., ≥95% of expected for sex, age, and height and mean global eating disorder symptoms within 1 SD of published means) at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Godart N, Berthoz S, Curt F, Perdereau F, Rein Z, Wallier J, et al. A randomized controlled trial of adjunctive family therapy and treatment as usual following inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa adolescents. PLoS One. 2012;7:e28249.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dalle Grave R, Calugi S, Doll HA, Fairburn CG. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: an alternative to family therapy? Behav Res Ther. 2013;51:R9–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wildes JE, Marcus MD. Development of emotion acceptance behavior therapy for anorexia nervosa: a case series. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44:421–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wildes JE, Marcus MD, Cheng Y, McCabe EB, Gaskill JA. Emotion acceptance behavior therapy for anorexia nervosa: a pilot study. Int J Eat Disord. 2014. doi: 10.1002/eat.22241.
  51. 51.
    Tchanturia K, Davies H, Roberts M, Harrison A, Nakazato M, Schmidt U, et al. Poor cognitive flexibility in eating disorders: examining the evidence using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. PLoS One. 2012;7:e28331.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shott ME, Filoteo JV, Bhatnagar KA, Peak NJ, Hagman JO, Rockwell R, et al. Cognitive set-shifting in anorexia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012;20:343–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lang K, Stahl D, Espie J, Treasure J, Tchanturia K. Set shifting in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa: an exploratory systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Eat Disord. 2013. doi: 10.1002/eat.22235.
  54. 54.
    Buhren K, Mainz V, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Schafer K, Kahraman-Lanzerath B, Lente C, et al. Cognitive flexibility in juvenile anorexia nervosa patients before and after weight recovery. J Neural Transm. 2012;119:1047–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    McAnarney ER, Zarcone J, Singh P, Michels J, Welsh S, Litteer T, et al. Restrictive anorexia nervosa and set-shifting in adolescents: a biobehavioral interface. J Adolesc Health. 2011;49:99–101.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Andres-Perpina S, Lozano-Serra E, Puig O, Lera-Miguel S, Lazaro L, Castro-Fornieles J. Clinical and biological correlates of adolescent anorexia nervosa with impaired cognitive profile. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:541–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tchanturia K, Davies H. Cognitive remediation therapy for anorexia nervosa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dahlgren CL, Lask B, Landro NI, Ro O. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents with anorexia nervosa before and after cognitive remediation therapy: a feasibility trial. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:576–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wood L, Al-Khairulla H, Lask B. Group cognitive remediation therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;16:225–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pretorius N, Dimmer M, Power E, Eisler I, Simic M, Tchanturia K. Evaluation of a cognitive remediation therapy group for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: pilot study. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012;20:321–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wu H, Van Dyck-Lippens PJ, Santegoeds R, van Kuyck K, Gabriels L, Lin G, et al. Deep-brain stimulation for anorexia nervosa. World Neurosurg. 2013;80:S29.e1–10.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mitchell JE, Roerig J, Steffen K. Biological therapies for eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:470–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lebow J, Sim LA, Erwin PJ, Murad MH. The effect of atypical antipsychotic medications in individuals with anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:332–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Misra M, Katzman D, Miller KK, Mendes N, Snelgrove D, Russell M, et al. Physiologic estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:2430–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Divasta AD, Feldman HA, Giancaterino C, Rosen CJ, Leboff MS, Gordon CM. The effect of gonadal and adrenal steroid therapy on skeletal health in adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa. Metabolism. 2012;61:1010–20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stice E, Marti CN, Rohde P. Prevalence, incidence, impairment, and course of the proposed DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses in an 8-year prospective community study of young women. J Abnorm Psychol. 2013;122:445–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.••
    Swanson SA, Crow SJ, Le Grange D, Swendsen J, Merikangas KR. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68:714–23. Offers lifetime prevalence rates, psychiatric comorbidity rates and average age of onset for threshold and subtreshold eating disorders for a nationally representative sample of adolescents (13 to 18 years old) using semistructured interviews.Diagnostic criteria were examined using both the DSM-IV (for AN and BN) and DSM-V (for BED).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Peebles R, Hardy KK, Wilson JL, Lock JD. Medical compromise in eating disorders not otherwise specified: are diagnostic criteria for eating disorders markers of severity? Pediatrics. 2010;125:e1193–201.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.•
    Field AE, Sonneville KR, Micali N, Crosby RD, Swanson SA, Laird NM, et al. Prospective association of common eating disorders and adverse outcomes. Pediatrics. 2012;130:e289–95. Using a large community sample of girls, this paper highlights the prospective associations between binge-eating disorder and several adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including the onset of obesity and increases in depressive symptoms.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Seitz J, Kahraman-Lanzerath B, Legenbauer T, Sarrar L, Herpertz S, Salbach-Andrae H, et al. The role of impulsivity, inattention, and comorbid ADHD in patients with bulimia nervosa. PLoS One. 2013;8:e63891.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Peebles R, Wilson JL, Lock JD. Self-injury in adolescents with eating disorders: correlates and provider bias. J Adolesc Health. 2011;48:310–3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kass AE, Kolko RP, Wilfley DE. Psychological treatments for eating disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatr. 2013;26:549–55.Google Scholar
  73. 73.••
    Hoste RR, Labuschagne Z, Le Grange D. Adolescent bulimia nervosa. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012;14:391–7. This paper highlights the tremendous paucity of research evaluating psychosocial treatments for youth with bulimia nervosa. It also reviews several promising treatments, including family-based therapy, in light of research examining the risk factors for and correlates of adolescent bulimia nervosa.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wagner G, Penelo E, Wanner C, Gwinner P, Trofaier ML, Imgart H, et al. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy versus conventional guided self-help for bulimia nervosa: long term evaluation of a randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:135–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Couturier J, Kimber M, Szatmari P. Efficacy of family-based treatment for adolescents with eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stiles-Shields C, Hoste RR, Doyle PM, LeGrange D. A review of family-based treatment for adolescents with eating disorders. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2012;7:133–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Castro-Fornieles J, Bigorra A, Martinez-Mallen E, Gonzalez L, Moreno E, Font E, et al. Motivation to change in adolescents with bulimia nervosa mediates clinical change after treatment. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2010;19:46–54.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Marsh R, Horga G, Wang Z, Wang P, Klahr KW, Berner LA, et al. An fMRI study of self-regulatory control and conflict resolution in adolescents with bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:1210–20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Billingsley-Marshall RL, Basso MR, Lund BC, Hernandez ER, Johnson CL, Drevets WC, et al. Executive function in eating disorders: the role of state anxiety. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:316–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fagundo AB, Santamaría JJ, Forcano L, Giner-Bartolomé C, Jiménez-Murcia S, Sánchez I, et al. Video game therapy for emotional regulation and impulsivity control in a series of treated cases with bulimia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013;21:493–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Van den Eynde F, Guillaume S, Broadbent H, Stahl D, Campbell IC, Schmidt U, et al. Neurocognition in bulimic eating disorders: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;124:120–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bishop-Gilyard CT, Berkowitz RI, Wadden TA, Gehrman CA, Cronquist JL, Moore RH. Weight reduction in obese adolescents with and without binge eating. Obesity. 2011;19:982–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Debar LL, Wilson GT, Yarborough BJ, Burns B, Oyler B, Hildebrandt T, et al. Cognitive behavioral treatment for recurrent binge eating in adolescent girls: a pilot trial. Cogn Behav Pract. 2013;20:147–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Wilfley DE, Young JF, Mufson L, Yanovski SZ, Glasofer DR, et al. A pilot study of interpersonal psychotherapy for preventing excess weight gain in adolescent girls at-risk for obesity. Int J Eat Disord. 2010;43:701–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hilbert A. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2013;14:312.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mazzeo SE, Kelly NR, Stern M, Palmberg AA, Belgrave FZ, Tanofsky-Kraff M, et al. LIBER8 design and methods: an integrative intervention for loss of control eating among African American and White adolescent girls. Contemp Clin Trials. 2013;34:174–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Boutelle KN, Zucker NL, Peterson CB, Rydell SA, Cafri G, Harnack L. Two novel treatments to reduce overeating in overweight children: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79:759–71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Murdoch M, Payne N, Samani-Radia D, Rosen-Webb J, Walker L, Howe M, et al. Family-based behavioural management of childhood obesity: service evaluation of a group programme run in a community setting in the United Kingdom. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65:764–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hartmann AS, Czaja J, Rief W, Hilbert A. Personality and psychopathology in children with and without loss of control over eating. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:572–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hughes EK, Gullone E. Emotion regulation moderates relationships between body image concerns and psychological symptomatology. Body Image. 2011;8:224–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mikami AY, Hinshaw SP, Arnold LE, Hoza B, Hechtman L, Newcorn JH, et al. Bulimia nervosa symptoms in the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD. Int J Eat Disord. 2010;43:248–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fischer S, Settles R, Collins B, Gunn R, Smith GT. The role of negative urgency and expectancies in problem drinking and disordered eating. Psychol Addict Behav. 2012;26:112–23.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Svaldi J, Brand M, Tuschen-Caffier B. Decision-making impairments in women with binge eating disorder. Appetite. 2010;54:84–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Duchesne M, Mattos P, Appolinario JC, Regina de Freitas S, Coutinho G, Santos C, et al. Assessment of executive functions in obese individuals with binge eating disorder. Braz J Psychiatr. 2010;32:381–8.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Müller A, Brandl C, Kiunke W, Georgiadou E, Horbach T, Köhler H, et al. Food-independent tendency to disadvantageous decisions in obese individuals with regular binge eating. Compr Psychiatry. 2013;55:64–70.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Linehan MM. Skills manual training for treating borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  98. 98.•
    Shomaker LB, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Elliot CA, Wolkoff LE, Columbo KM, Ranzenhofer LM, et al. Salience of loss of control for pediatric binge episodes: does size really matter? Int J Eat Disord. 2010;43:707–16. Data from this cross-sectional study support the notion that a sense of loss of control while eating, rather than the amount of food consumed, is the most clinically salient feature of binge eating behavior in terms of eating disorder pathology and excess weight, particularly among non-treatment seeking pediatric samples.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shomaker LB, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Savastano DM, Kozlosky M, Columbo KM, Wolkoff LE, et al. Puberty and observed energy intake: boy, can they eat! Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:123–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tanofsky-Kraff M. Binge eating among children and adolescents. In: Jelalian E, Steele R, editors. Handbook of child and adolescent obesity. New York: Springer; 2008. p. 41–57.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vannucci A, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Crosby RD, Ranzenhofer LM, Shomaker LB, Field SE, et al. Latent profile analysis to determine the typology of disinhibited eating behaviors in children and adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2013;81:494–507.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Goossens L, Soenens B, Braet C. Prevalence and characteristics of binge eating in an adolescent community sample. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2009;38:342–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Goossens L, Braet C, Decaluwe V. Loss of control over eating in obese youngsters. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pearson CM, Combs JL, Zapolski TC, Smith GT. A longitudinal transactional risk model for early eating disorder onset. J Abnorm Psychol. 2012;121:707–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Goossens L, Braet C, Van Durme K, Decaluwe V, Bosmans G. The parent-child relationship as predictor of eating pathology and weight gain in preadolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2012;41:445–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Goossens L, Braet C. Screening for eating pathology in the pediatric field. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2010;5:483–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.••
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Olsen C, Roza CA, Wolkoff LE, Columbo KM, et al. A prospective study of pediatric loss of control eating and psychological outcomes. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011;120:108–18. This longitudinal study indicates that the presence of any loss of control eating is a significant risk factor for the development of subhtreshold and threshold binge eating disorder in boys and girls; additionally, youth engaging in persistent loss of control eating may be particularly at risk for exacerbated mental health outcomes.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Goldschmidt A, Wilfley DE, Eddy KT, Boutelle K, Zucker N, Peterson CB, et al. Overvaluation of shape and weight among overweight children and adolescents with loss of control eating. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49:682–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Elliott CA, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Columbo KM, Wolkoff LE, Ranzenhofer LM, et al. An examination of the interpersonal model of loss of control eating in children and adolescents. Behav Res Ther. 2010;48:424–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wildes JE, Marcus MD, Kalarchian MA, Levine MD, Houck PR, Cheng Y. Self-reported binge eating in severe pediatric obesity: impact on weight change in a randomized controlled trial of family-based treatment. Int J Obes. 2010;34:143–8.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Field AE, Sonneville KR, Micali N, Crosby RD, Swanson SA, Laird NM, et al. Prospective association of common eating disorders and adverse outcome. Pediatrics. 2012;130:e289–95.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.••
    Sonneville KR, Horton NJ, Micali N, Crosby RD, Swanson SA, Solmi F, et al. Longitudinal associations between binge eating and overeating and adverse outcomes among adolescents and young adults: does loss of control matter? JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167:149–55. In this large prospective study, binge eating, but not overeating, was associated with significantly higher odds of being overweight or obese at future evaluations. As such, this study highlights the unique weight-related concerns associated with pediatric binge eating.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Stern EA, Miller R, Sebring N, Dellavalle D, et al. Children's binge eating and development of metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes. 2012;36:956–62.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bravender T, Bryant-Waugh R, Herzog D, Katzman D, Kriepe RD, Lask B, et al. Classification of eating disturbance in children and adolescents: proposed changes for the DSM-V. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2010;18:79–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ranzenhofer LM, Columbo KM, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Cassidy O, Matheson BE, et al. Binge eating and weight-related quality of life in obese adolescents. Nutrients. 2012;4:167–80.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ackard DM, Fulkerson JA, Neumark-Sztainer D. Psychological and behavioral risk profiles as they relate to eating disorder diagnoses and symptomatology among a school-based sample of youth. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44:440–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    van Elburg A, Treasure J. Advances in the neurobiology of eating disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013;26:556–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Engel S, Yanovski JA, Pine DS, Nelson EE. Pediatric disinhibited eating: toward a research domain criteria framework. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:451–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.•
    Insel T, Cuthbert B, Garvey M, Heinssen R, Pine DS, Quinn K, et al. Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:748–51. This study offers a summary of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, emphasizing its current research and future clinical utility.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.••
    Wildes JE, Marcus MD. Incorporating dimensions into the classification of eating disorders: three models and their implications for research and clinical practice. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:396–403. Discusses the clinical advantages of adopting a dimensional approach to the classification, treatment and prevention of eating disorders and their psychiatric comorbidities.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lavender JM, Crosby RD, Wonderlich SA. Dimensions in the eating disorders: past, present, and future. Commentary on Wildes and Marcus: incorporating dimensions into the classification of eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:404–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nichole R. Kelly
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lisa M. Shank
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jennifer L. Bakalar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marian Tanofsky-Kraff
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical and Clinical PsychologyUniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), DoDBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Section on Growth and Obesity, Program in Developmental Endocrinology and GeneticsEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), DHHSBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations