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The Influence of Gene–Environment Interactions on the Development of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

Abstract

Alcoholism and drug dependence are common psychiatric disorders with a heritability of about 50%; therefore genetic and environmental influences are equally important. Early-life stress is a predictor of adolescent problem drinking/drug use and alcohol/drug dependence in adulthood, but moderating factors governing the availability of alcohol/drug are important. The risk–resilience balance for addiction may be due in part to the interaction between genetic variation and environment stressors (G × E); this has been confirmed by twin studies of inferred genetic risk. Measured genotype studies to detect G × E effects have used a range of alcohol consumption and diagnostic phenotypes and stressors ranging from early-life to adulthood past year life events. In this article, the current state of the field is critically reviewed and suggestions are put forth for future research.

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Enoch, MA. The Influence of Gene–Environment Interactions on the Development of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. Curr Psychiatry Rep 14, 150–158 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-011-0252-9

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Keywords

  • Childhood maltreatment
  • Sexual abuse
  • Physical abuse
  • Gene–environment interactions
  • Alcoholism
  • Drug dependence
  • Stressful life events
  • Crossover of risk
  • Differential susceptibility hypothesis
  • Alcohol dependence
  • Cocaine dependence
  • Adolescent problem drinking
  • HPA axis
  • Stress circuitry
  • Cortisol
  • Reward pathway
  • Dopamine
  • Corpus callosum
  • SLC6A4
  • 5-HTTLPR
  • MAOA-LPR
  • CRHBP
  • CRHR1
  • FKBP5
  • GABRA2
  • COMT
  • PER1
  • KCNJ6