Skip to main content

Considerations and Implications of Cannabidiol Use During Pregnancy

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Cannabis is a naturally occurring plant that is composed of over sixty phytocannabinoids, of which cannabidiol (CBD) has been recently identified as having therapeutic potential.

Recent Findings

Although not clearly understood in its mechanism of action, CBD contains potent anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperalgesia, and analgesic qualities now being further analyzed for its use in the treatment of a plethora of diseases. Related to its large safety profile and lack of psychoactive effects typically associated with cannabis and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD is being used more frequently for self-treatment of chronic pain, anxiety, and depression. With the help of broad marketing, CBD is being used by numerous people, including pregnant women who use CBD as an anti-emetic. Since marijuana is legalized in many states in the USA, the use of CBD has increased not only in the general population but also in specific groups such as pregnant women with chronic pain.

Summary

Despite CBD’s accessibility, there are limited studies showing its safety during pregnancy. While the use of cannabis has been well explored in terms of the effects on pregnancy, the use of CBD during pregnancy thus far has limited literature. The goal of this investigation is to impart the current understanding of CBD and its effects of pregnancy.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Brightfield Group. Hemp-Derived CBD Market to Reach $22 Billion By 2022. CBD Report. 2018. p. 1.

  2. 2.

    Corroon J, Kight R. Regulatory status of cannabidiol in the United States: a perspective. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2018;3(1):190–4.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Corroon J, Phillips JA. A cross-sectional study of cannabidiol users. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2018;3(1):152–61.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Wray L, Stott C, Jones N, Wright S. Cannabidiol does not convert to Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol in an in vivo animal model. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):282–7.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Grant KS, Petroff R, Isoherranen N, Stella N, Burbacher TM. Cannabis use during pregnancy: pharmacokinetics and effects on child development. Pharmacol Ther. 2018;182:133–51.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Philpott HT, O’Brien M, Mcdougall JJ. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. 2017;158(12):2442–51.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol : a review of clinical data and relevant animal studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2:139–54. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0034

  8. 8.

    Manthey J. International Journal of Drug Policy Cannabis use in Europe : current trends and public health concerns. Int J Drug Policy. 2019;68:93–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Mouhamed Y, Vishnyakov A, Qorri B, Sambi M, Frank SMS, Nowierski C, et al. Therapeutic potential of medicinal marijuana: an educational primer for health care professionals. Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2018;10:45–66.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Jamie Corroon RK. Regulatory status of cannabidiol in the United States. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2020;3(1):190–4.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Corroon J, Phillips JA. A cross-sectional study of cannabidiol users. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2018;3(1):152–61.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Morean ME, Lederman IR. Addictive behaviors prevalence and correlates of medical cannabis patients’ use of cannabis for recreational purposes. Addict Behav. 2019;93(January):233–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Hammell DC, Zhang LP, Ma F, Abshire SM, McIlwrath SL, Stinchcomb AL, et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pain. 2016;20(6):936–48.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Welty TE, Luebke A, Gidal BE. Cannabidiol: promise and pitfalls. Epilepsy Curr. 2014;14(5):250–2.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Urits I, Borchart M, Hasegawa M, Kochanski J, Orhurhu V, Viswanath O. An update of current cannabis-based pharmaceuticals in pain medicine. Pain Ther. 2019;8(1):41–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40122-019-0114-4

  16. 16.

    Wang GS. Pediatric concerns due to expanded cannabis use: unintended consequences of legalization. J Med Toxicol. 2017;13(1):99–105.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Mark K, Terplan M. Cannabis and pregnancy: maternal child health implications during a period of drug policy liberalization. Prev Med (Baltim). 2017;104:46–9.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Use M, Pregnancy D. Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;130(722):205–9.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Mark K, Desai A, Terplan M. Marijuana use and pregnancy: prevalence, associated characteristics, and birth outcomes. Arch Womens Ment Health 2016;19(1):105–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-015-0529-9

  20. 20.

    Bayrampour H, Zahradnik M, Lisonkova S, Janssen P. Women’ s perspectives about cannabis use during pregnancy and the postpartum period : an integrative review. Prev Med (Baltim). 2019;119(December 2018):17–23.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Zumbrun EE, Sido JM, Nagarkatti PS, Nagarkatti M. Epigenetic regulation of immunological alterations following prenatal exposure to marijuana cannabinoids and its long term consequences in offspring. J NeuroImmune Pharmacol. 2015;10(2):245–54.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Cook J, Blake J. Author Response : Cannabis: implications for pregnancy, fetal development and longer term health outcomes. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019;41(2):158–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Dinsdale NL. Letter: Cannabis: implications for pregnancy, fetal development, and longer-term health outcomes. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019;41(2):156–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Young-wolff KC, Sarovar V, Tucker L, Avalos LA, Alexeeff S, Conway A, et al. Trends in marijuana use among pregnant women with and without nausea and vomiting in pregnancy , 2009–2016. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019;196(January):66–70.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Kedzior KK, Laeber LT. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14(1):1–22.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Camchong J, Lim KO, Kumra S. Adverse effects of cannabis on adolescent brain development: a longitudinal study. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27(3):1922–30.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Benevenuto SG, Domenico MD, Martins MAG, Costa NS, de Souza ARL, Costa JL, et al. Recreational use of marijuana during pregnancy and negative gestational and fetal outcomes: an experimental study in mice. Toxicology. 2017;376:94–101.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Luke S, Hutcheon J, Kendall T. Cannabis use in pregnancy in British Columbia and selected birth outcomes. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019;41(9):1311–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2018.11.014

  29. 29.

    Howard DS, Dhanraj DN, Devaiah CG, Lambers DS. Cannabis use based on urine drug screens in pregnancy and its association with infant birth weight 2019;13(6):436–41. https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000516

  30. 30.

    Conner SN, Bedell V, Lipsey K, Macones GA, Cahill AG, Tuuli MG. Maternal marijuana use and adverse neonatal outcomes a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128(4):713–23. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000001649

  31. 31.

    Bertrand KA, Hanan NJ, Honerkamp-Smith G, Best BM, Chambers CD.. Marijuana use by breastfeeding mothers and cannabinoid concentrations in breast milk. Pediatrics 2018;142(3):e20181076. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1076

  32. 32.

    Scheyer AF, Melis M, Trezza V, Manzoni OJJ. Consequences of perinatal cannabis exposure. Trends Neurosci. 2019;42:871–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2019.08.010

  33. 33.

    Dong C, Chen J, Harrington A, Vinod KY, Hegde ML, Hegde VL. Cannabinoid exposure during pregnancy and its impact on immune function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019;76(4):729–43.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Spano MS, Ellgren M, Wang X, Hurd YL. Prenatal cannabis exposure increases heroin seeking with allostatic changes in limbic Enkephalin Systems in adulthood. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(4):554–63.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Orr C, Spechler P, Cao Z, Albaugh M, Chaarani B, Mackey S, et al. Grey matter volume differences associated with extremely low levels of cannabis use in adolescence. J Neurosci. 2019;39(10):1817–27.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Stickrath E. Marijuana use in pregnancy: an updated look at marijuana use and its impact on pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2019;62(1):185–90. https://doi.org/10.1097/GRF.0000000000000415

  37. 37.

    Ashford K, Fallin-bennett A, Mccubbin A, Wiggins A, Barnhart S, Lile J. Neurotoxicology and teratology associations of fi rst trimester co-use of tobacco and Cannabis with prenatal immune response and psychosocial well-being. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2019;73(March 2018):42–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Grant KS, Petroff R, Isoherranen N, Stella N, Burbacher TM, Burbacher M, et al. Cannabis use during pregnancy: pharmacokinetics and effects on child development. Pharmacol Ther. 2018;182(206):133–51.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Schreiber S, Pick CG. Cannabis use during pregnancy: are we at the verge of defining a “fetal cannabis spectrum disorder”? Med Hypotheses. 2019;124(November 2018):53–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Gunn JKL, Rosales CB, Nuñez A, Gibson SJ, Christ C. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016:1–8.

  41. 41.

    O’Connor A. CBD oil: is it safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding? What to expect. 2019. https://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/yourhealth/cbd-oil-use-during-pregnancy

  42. 42.

    Umatilla. What You Need to Know About Taking CBD While Pregnant. The Recovery Village. 2019. p. 1.

  43. 43.

    Grinspoon P. Cannabidiol (CBD) — what we know and what we don’t. Harvard Health Blog. 2019. p. 1.

  44. 44.

    Brown M. CBD oil for pregnancy: how moms are using it. Parents. 2018. p. 1.

  45. 45.

    What you should know about using cannabis, including cbd, when pregnant or breastfeeding | FDA [Internet].

  46. 46.

    Dalterio SL, DeRooij DG. Maternal cannabinoid exposure effects on spermatogenesis in male offspring. Int J Androl. 1986;9(4):250–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, et al. Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Can Med Assoc J. 2010;182(14):E694–701.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Deutsch R, Gouaux B, Sakai S, Donaghe H. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2013;14(2):136–48.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Mortimer TL, Mabin T, Engelbrecht AM Cannabinoids: the lows and the highs of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Future Oncol. 2019;15(9):35–1049. https://doi.org/10.2217/fon-2018-0530

  50. 50.

    De Gregorio D, McLaughlin RJ, Posa L, Ochoa-Sanchez R, Enns J, Lopez-Canul M, et al. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2019;160(1):136–50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Couch DG, Cook H, Ortori C, Barrett D, Lund JN, O’Sullivan SE. Palmitoylethanolamide and cannabidiol prevent inflammation-induced hyperpermeability of the human gut in vitro and in vivo—a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind controlled trial. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019;25(6):1006–18.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Halbmeijer N, Groeneweg M, De Ridder L. Cannabis, a potential treatment option in pediatric IBD? Still a long way to go. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019;12(4):355–61.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Mallada Frechín J. Effect of tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol oromucosal spray on activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis patients with resistant spasticity: a retrospective, observational study. Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2018;8(3):151–59. https://doi.org/10.2217/nmt-2017-0055

  54. 54.

    Russo EB. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(1):245–59.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Chen JW, Borgelt LM, Blackmer AB. Cannabidiol: a new hope for patients with Dravet or Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. Ann Pharmacother. 2019;53(6):603–11.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Ali S, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG. Efficacy of cannabinoids in paediatric epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2019;61(1):13–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Gaston TE, Friedman D. Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2017;70(Pt B):313–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: a review of clinical data and relevant animal studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):139–54.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Friedman D, French JA, Maccarrone M. Safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids in neurological disorders. Lancet Neurol. 2019;18(5):504–12.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Belardo C, Iannotta M, Boccella S, Rubino RC, Ricciardi F, Infantino R, et al. Oral cannabidiol prevents allodynia and neurological dysfunctions in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10(April):1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Lattanzi S, Brigo F, Trinka E, Zaccara G, Cagnetti C, Del Giovane C, et al. Efficacy and safety of cannabidiol in epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drugs. 2018;78(17):1791–804.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Premoli M, Aria F, Bonini SA, et al. Cannabidiol: Recent advances and new insights for neuropsychiatric disorders treatment. Life Sci. 2019;224:120–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.03.053

  63. 63.

    Hu SS-J, Mackie K. Distribution of the endocannabinoid system in the central nervous system. Cham: Springer; 2015. p. 59–93.

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Manzanares J, Julian M, Carrascosa A. Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2006;4(3):239–57.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Kathmann M, Flau K, Redmer A, Tränkle C, Schlicker E. Cannabidiol is an allosteric modulator at mu- and delta-opioid receptors. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol. 2006;372(5):354–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Campos AC, Guimarães FS. Involvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats. Psychopharmacology. 2008;199(2):223–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Laun AS, Shrader SH, Brown KJ, Song Z-H. GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 as novel molecular targets: their biological functions and interaction with cannabidiol. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2019;40(3):300–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Ryberg E, Larsson N, Sjögren S, Hjorth S, Hermansson N-O, Leonova J, et al. The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;152(7):1092–101.

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Khan AA, Shekh-Ahmad T, Khalil A, Walker MC, Ali AB. Cannabidiol exerts antiepileptic effects by restoring hippocampal interneuron functions in a temporal lobe epilepsy model. Br J Pharmacol. 2018;175(11):2097–115.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Khan AA, Shekh-Ahmad T, Khalil A, Walker MC, Ali AB. Cannabidiol exerts antiepileptic effects by restoring hippocampal interneuron functions in a temporal lobe epilepsy model. Br J Pharmacol. 2018;175(11):2097–115.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Bhattacharyya S, Wilson R, Appiah-Kusi E, O’Neill A, Brammer M, Perez J, et al. Effect of cannabidiol on medial temporal, midbrain, and striatal dysfunction in people at clinical high risk of psychosis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75(11):1107–17.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Watt G, Karl T. In vivo evidence for therapeutic properties of cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s disease. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:20.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Sales AJ, Fogaça MV, Sartim AG, Pereira VS, Wegener G, Guimarães FS, et al. Cannabidiol induces rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects through increased BDNF signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex. Mol Neurobiol. 2019;56(2):1070–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Gunasekaran N, Long LE, Dawson BL, Hansen GH, Richardson DP, Li KM, et al. Reintoxication: the release of fat-stored delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) into blood is enhanced by food deprivation or ACTH exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158(5):1330–7.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Mechoulam R, Parker LA, Gallily R. Cannabidiol: an overview of some pharmacological aspects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;42(S1):11S–9S.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Häuser W, Fitzcharles M-A, Radbruch L, Petzke F. Cannabinoids in pain management and palliative medicine. Dtsch Aerzteblatt Online. 2017;114(38):627–34.

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Millar SA, Stone NL, Yates AS, O’Sullivan SE. A systematic review on the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in humans. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:1365.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Friedrich J, Khatib D, Parsa K, Santopietro A, Gallicano GI. The grass isn’t always greener: the effects of cannabis on embryological development. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;17(1):45.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Zendulka O, Dovrtělová G, Nosková K, Turjap M, Šulcová A, Hanuš L, et al. Cannabinoids and cytochrome P450 interactions. Curr Drug Metab. 2016;17(3):206–26.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Brown QL, Sarvet AL, Shmulewitz D, Martins SS, Wall MM, Hasin DS. Trends in marijuana use among pregnant and nonpregnant reproductive-aged women, 2002-2014. JAMA. 2017;317(2):207–9.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Callejas GH, Figueira RL, Gonçalves FLL, Volpe FAP, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, et al. Maternal administration of cannabidiol promotes an anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal wall in a gastroschisis rat model. Brazilian J Med Biol Res = Rev Bras Pesqui medicas e Biol. 2018;51(5):e7132.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Sun X, Dey SK. Synthetic cannabinoids and potential reproductive consequences. Life Sci. 2014;97(1):72–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Solinas M, Massi P, Cantelmo AR, Cattaneo MG, Cammarota R, Bartolini D, et al. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167(6):1218–31.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Feinshtein V, Erez O, Ben-Zvi Z, Eshkoli T, Sheizaf B, Sheiner E, et al. Cannabidiol enhances xenobiotic permeability through the human placental barrier by direct inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein: An ex vivo study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209(6):573.e1–573.e15.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Feinshtein V, Erez O, Ben-Zvi Z, Erez N, Eshkoli T, Sheizaf B, et al. Cannabidiol changes P-gp and BCRP expression in trophoblast cell lines. PeerJ. 2013;1:e153.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Feinshtein V, Erez O, Ben-Zvi Z, Erez N, Eshkoli T, Sheizaf B, et al. Cannabidiol changes P-gp and BCRP expression in trophoblast cell lines. PeerJ. 2013;1:e153.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    da Silva VK, de Freitas BS, da Silva DA, Nery LR, Falavigna L, Ferreira RDP, et al. Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: implications for neuroprotection. Mol Neurobiol. 2014;49(1):222–33.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Houlihan DD, Dennedy MC, Morrison JJ. Effects of abnormal cannabidiol on oxytocin-induced myometrial contractility. Reproduction. 2010;139(4):783–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Das SK, Paria BC, Chakraborty I, Dey SK. Cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling in the mouse uterus. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2006;92(10):4332–6.

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Osborne AL, Solowij N, Babic I, Huang X-F, Weston-Green K. Improved social interaction, recognition and working memory with cannabidiol treatment in a prenatal infection (poly I:C) rat model. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42(7):1447–57.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Hoffenberg EJ, McWilliams S, Mikulich-Gilbertson S, Murphy B, Hoffenberg A, Hopfer CJ. Cannabis oil use by adolescents and Young adults with inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019;68(3):348–52.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    De Gregorio D, McLaughlin R, Posa L, Ochoa-Sanchez R, Enns J, Lopez-Canul M, et al. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2019;160(1):136–50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Greene NZ, Wiley JL, Yu Z, Clowers BH, Craft RM. Cannabidiol modulation of antinociceptive tolerance to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Psychopharmacology. 2018;235(11):3289–302.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ivan Urits.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

Syena Sarrafpour, Ivan Urits, Jordan Powell, Diep Nguyen, Jessica Callan, Vwaire Orhurhu, Thomas Simopoulos, Omar Viswanath, Rachel J. Kaye, Elyse M. Cornett, and Cyrus Yazdi declare no conflict of interest. Alan Kaye is a Section Editor for Current Headache and Pain Reports. He has not been involved in the editorial handling of this manuscript. Dr. Kaye is also a speaker for Merck.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Other Pain

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sarrafpour, S., Urits, I., Powell, J. et al. Considerations and Implications of Cannabidiol Use During Pregnancy. Curr Pain Headache Rep 24, 38 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00872-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • THC
  • CBD receptor
  • Phytocannabinoids
  • Marijuana
  • Pregnancy
  • Cannabis
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-hyperalgesia
  • Analgesic